1. The study of how living organisms use energy to perform the activities of life.
  2. What is a calorie?
    The amount of energy required to rise the temperature of 1 kg of water 1 degree C.
  3. These are organisms that can synthesize their own nutrients, such as plants.
  4. These are organisms that derive energy from chemicals.
  5. Energy that is transformed from stored to mobile form so work can be accomplished.
  6. Energy that is stored energy available for work.
  7. Energy being used for work.
  8. What does the first law of Thermodynamics (law of conservation) state?
    • Energy can be neither created nor destroyed, but can be converted from one form to another
    • The total energy in the universe remains constant
  9. What does the second law of thermodynamics state?
    Energy transformations are inefficient because every reaction results in increased entropy and some useable energy is lost to the surroundings
  10. What are the pathways involved in energy conversions are called?
    Metabolic pathways
  11. What are the two types of metabolic pathways?
  12. What metabolic pathway uses energy?
    Synthesis, anabolism
  13. What metabolic pathway releases energy?
    Degradation, catabolic
  14. A reaction that releases energy is exergonic or endergonic?
  15. What is the energy currency.
    ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
  16. Is the breaking of the chemical bonds in ATP to ADP and AMP endergonic or exergonic?
  17. How many calories are released as ATP is converted to ADP? ATP to AMP?
    • 7000
    • 14000
  18. T or F? AMP is a high energy molecule.
  19. What type of efficient reaction is found throughout the body?
    Coupled reactions
  20. What is a coupled reaction?
    When a reaction needs energy and while another releases energy.
  21. A form of direct energy.
  22. Two forms of indirect energy.
    • NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen)
    • FADH2 (flavin adenine�)
  23. T or F? Indirect energy (NADH, FADH2) is a source of backup energy.
  24. Why is indirect energy used as a backup source of energy?
    It has to travel to the mitochondria before supplying energy.
  25. What controls metabolism?
    Controlling or rate limiting enzyme
  26. The minimal amount of energy required to maintain a basal level of bodily function is known as what?
    Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
  27. What is the BMR for males? Females?
    • 1750 kcal
    • 1450 kcal
  28. BMR increases with anabolic status and what?
  29. Is there a higher BMR is lean or fat tissue?
  30. What is the main hormone that regulates BMR?
    Thyroid hormone
  31. What is the active form of thyroid hormone?
    Thyroxin (T4)
  32. What organs generate the most heat when the body is at rest?
    Liver, heart, brain, and endocrine
  33. What is the range of body temperature?
    35.8 to 38.2 C
  34. What is the main thermoregulator?
  35. Which is higher, core temp or shell temp?
  36. Name 7 heat promoting mechanisms.
    • Constriction of cutaneous blood vessels
    • Shivering
    • Increase in metabolic rate (epinephrine, norepinephrine by medulla)
    • Increase thyroxine (increase metabolic rate)
    • Hot fluids
    • Changing posture
    • Increase physical activity
  37. Name 4 heat loss mechanisms.
    • Dilation of cutaneous blood vessels
    • Enhanced sweating
    • Seeking a cooler environment
    • Wearing light-colored clothes
  38. What are 2 mechanisms of ATP synthesis?
    • Substrate level phosphorylation
    • Oxidative phosphorylation
  39. What type of phosphorylation is more complicated and takes place in the mitochondria cristae?
  40. What type of phosphorylation involves aerobic respiration and provides more energy?
  41. What type of phosphorylation can take place anywhere in a cell?
    Substrate level
  42. What type of phosphorylation involves glycolysis and citric acid pathways?
  43. Most carbohydrates are derived from what?
  44. Polysaccharide starch that is found in grains and vegetables provide this.
  45. T or F? Carbohydrates are used as fuels by body cells to produce ATP.
  46. Complex carb/carb intake should be what percent of one�s total calorie intake to maintain health?
    45 to 65
  47. Through what 2 processes are carbs broken down by the body?
    • Glycolysis, then
    • Krebs cycle
  48. Where does the Krebs cycle take place?
  49. What is a byproduct of the Krebs cycle?
  50. What are the most abundant dietary lipids?
    Triglycerides or neutral fats
  51. What are the two types of fats?
    • Saturated
    • Unsaturated
  52. Which fat is present in animal products, tropical plant products, and hydrogenated oils.
    Saturated fats
  53. What is the difference between saturated fats and unsaturated fats?
    Unsaturated are easier to metabolize
  54. These fats are present in seeds, nuts, olive oil, and most vegetable oils.
    Unsaturated fats
  55. This is important in plasma membranes, synthesis of bile salts, steroid hormones, and sex hormones.
  56. What are 4 major sources of cholesterol?
    • Egg yolk
    • Meats
    • Shellfish
    • Milk products
  57. What are 3 functions of fatty deposits in adipose tissue?
    • Protection
    • Insulation
    • Storage (concentrated source of fuel)
  58. What is the body�s most concentrated source of energy?
    Fat (9 kcal vs. 4 kcal per gram or carb or protein)
  59. What products contain the highest quality proteins?
    Animal products
  60. What are 3 other sources of protein other than meat?
    • Legumes
    • Nuts
    • Cereals
    • Leafy greens
  61. Leafy greens are well balanced in what?
    All essential amino acids except methionine (not available to vegetarians)
  62. T or F? Essential amino acids are those that the body can synthesize.
  63. T or F? All amino acids needed to make a particular protein must be present in a cell at the same time and in sufficient amounts.
  64. For optimal protein synthesis, the diet must supply sufficient what?
    Carb or fat calories for ATP production
  65. T or F? In healthy adults, the rate protein synthesis is higher than the rate of protein breakdown and loss.
    False (nitrogen balance)
  66. These can accelerate protein synthesis and growth.
  67. What is the recommended daily intake of proteins?
    0.8 g per kg of body weight
  68. After proteins are metabolized in the liver, what is the byproduct?
  69. In the liver, what happens to ammonia that makes it able to circulate in the blood without affecting the brain?
    It is converted to urea
  70. Urea is removed from the blood stream by this organ before being expelled in urine.
  71. T or F? Urea level in the urine is directly affected by protein intake.
  72. Vitamins function as these, which act with an enzyme to speed up a chemical reaction.
  73. T or F? Most vitamins are made in the body.
    False. Most are acquired from diet or supplements.
  74. This water soluble vitamin prevents the skin disease beri beri. What is it and where is it found?
    • Thiamin (B1)
    • Rice kernel, enriched breads
  75. Folic acid (B2) and riboflavin are important for what?
    Spinal cord closure, prevents spina bifida
  76. This B complex is an antioxidant, which reduces free radicals.
    Niacin (B3)
  77. What B complex is needed for phosphorylation?
    Pyridoxine (B6)
  78. What vitamin promotes enzyme activity?
    Biotin (B7)/Vitamin H
  79. What B complex is needed for blood formation preventing anemia and promoting weight loss?
    Cyanocobalamin (B12)
  80. What vitamin is important to the immune system and is an antioxidant?
    Vitamin C/ascorbic acid
  81. What vitamin is associated to scurvy?
    Vitamin C
  82. What fat soluble vitamin is found in highly pigmented vegetables?
  83. Where is vitamin D found?
    • Fortified milk
    • Sunlight
  84. Where is vitamin E found?
    Vegetable seed oils
  85. Where is vitamin K found?
    Synthesized in the intestines by bacteria
  86. Lack of vitamin A can cause this.
    Night blindness
  87. What vitamin is involved with calcium and phosphorus absorption (bone strength)?
  88. A lack of vitamin D is responsible for what 2 diseases?
    • Ricketts
    • Osteomalacia
  89. This vitamin helps protect us from UV radiation and is an antioxidant.
  90. Vitamin K is important for what process?
    Blood clotting
  91. What 3 minerals promote healthy bones and teeth?
    • Calcium
    • Phosphorus
    • Magnesium
  92. This mineral is important for healthy bones and teeth, as well as regulation of muscle and nerve function.
  93. What mineral is necessary for healthy bones and teeth as well as ATP and nucleic acids?
  94. What 2 minerals are needed to maintain fluid balance and nerve and muscle function?
  95. This mineral is necessary for electrolyte balance.
  96. What is the difference between required minerals and trace minerals?
    We use more than 100 mg or required minerals daily and less than 100 mg a day of trace.
Card Set
Energy & Nutrition Anatomy II