1. # of Sharps Key
    0 C
    1 G
    2 D
    3 A
    4 E
    5 B
    6 F#
    7 C#
  2. # of flatsKey
    0 C
    1 F
    2 Bb
    3 Eb
    4 Ab
    5 Db
    6 Gb
    7 Cb
  3. The key signature is a sequence of sharps and flats appearing just to the right of the treble clef or base clef on a staff. Sharps or flats that appear in the key signature are valid throughout the entire piece of music, or until a new key signature appears in the music.
  4. What does the six-eight time signature indicate?
    A measure is the space in between two bar lines. The "8" in the time signature means that the eighth note gets one beat. For example, there can be 6 eighth notes in one measure of 6-8 time. Three quarter notes can also fill up a measure of 6-8 time as well, since two 8th notes equal a quarter note.
  5. Why might a xylophone be anappropriate instrument for performing a simple ostinato by a child in elementary school?
    Xylophones provide a visual-linear representation of pitch, meaning that the pitch of each tone bar depends on its size. A child can see AND hear that the longest bar has the lowest sound and the shortest bar has the highest sound. The tone bars on the xylophone can also be removed. A child can easily get confused as to which notes he/she should be playing. By removing the unneeded tone bars, it makes it easier for a child to concentrate ONLY on the notes he or she is performing. Once the child knows the ostinato, tone bars can be placed back onto the xylophone one by one to challenge the child and improve skill and dexterity.

    • NOTE: by the way, an ostinato is a short melody that is constantly repeated.
    • ostinato is the italian word for stubborn (CF. obstinate).
    • There are two types of phrasing in songs - lyrical and musical. Phrasing is defined in the dictionary as "a sequence of words intended to have meaning". Its definition in relation to music is "a short passage or segment, often consisting of four measures or forming part of a larger unit. A phrase is simply, a "complete thought". For example, the 4 lines below, taken from the Beatles song "Let it Be", is a phrase.
    • When I find myself in times of trouble
    • Mother Mary comes to me
    • Speaking words of wisdom
    • Let it be
  7. Dynamics
    The loudness and softness of a piece of music, indicated by another set of Italian terms. Pianissimo (PP) means very soft. Mezzo piano (MP) means medium soft. Forte (F) means loud. Mezzo forte (MF) means medium loud. Fortissimo (FF) means very loud!
  8. Tempo
    • The speed of the music indicated by a set of Italian terms. For example, largo is very slow speed. Andante is walking speed. Allegro is running speed.
    • Presto is fast speed! Accelerando means to gradually increase the
    • speed. Ritardando means to gradually slow down the speed. A tempo
    • means to go back to the original speed.
  9. What are the highlights of Bandura’s learning Theory?
    • Bandura’s Social learning Theory emphasizes Observational
    • learning
    • a.Observe and imitate
    • b.Direct reinforcement-you perform an action to get certain reinforcement
    • c.Vicarious reinforcement-you see someone else and emulate appropriate
    • behavior
  10. Outline Skinner’s behavioral theory.
    • Operant conditioning-
    • Voluntary response with reinforcement
    • •Exhibit a behavior and receive a reward
    • •Once behavior is learned, reinforce intermittently
    • •Positive Reinforcement: give a reward after desired behavior
    • •Negative Reinforcement: remove a negative stimulus with desired behavior
    • •Punishment-consequence occurs to weaken or eliminate unwanted behavior
    • •Shaping-changing a behavior
    • •Generalization-apply behavior to similar situation
  11. How Skinner did used conditioning and reinforcement?
    Well known behavioral theorist B. F. Skinner, who is the father of operant conditioning shaped (conditioned) the behavior of a voluntary response by using reinforcement. Skinner showed with his Skinner box how a rat, after accidentally touching a lever to receive food, would eventually learn to press the lever whenever he was hungry. With reinforcement of the response, the conditioned response will continue.
  12. Describe Maslow’s hierarchy.
    • Maslow described ahierarchy of human needs: when basic needs are met, we
    • are free ot search out deeper levels of satisfaction. healthy, well-adjusted
    • individuals, which he called self –actualizers, seek fulfilling experiences.
    • Think of Maslow’s Hierarchy as a pyramid, with the base, consisting of the
    • physical requirements of existence.
    • A.Physical: Food, shelter and clothing
    • B.Safety: security and support
    • C.Love and belonging: Affiliation needs such as friendship and family
    • D.Self-Esteem: The confidence and self-respect needed to accomplish goals
    • E.Self-Actualization: Spiritual and Intellectual fulfillment
  13. What is Self-concept and Self-esteem?
    • Society impacts individual growth and development on personal and social
    • levels. The child’s first conceptions of self are concrete, rule-bound, and
    • largely determined by physical appearances. Self –perceptions become a more
    • abstract with time but self-concepts and self-esteem develop in accordance
    • with the situations in our lives and how others respond to us. Self concept
    • is a cognitive structure of ideas, feelings, and attitudes that people have
    • about themselves. It’s who we believe ourselves to be. We could consider it
    • to be our attempt to explain ourselves to ourselves, to build a scheme that
    • organizes our impressions, feelings, and attitudes about ourselves. This
    • model or scheme is not permanent, unified, or unchanging. Our
    • self-perceptions vary from situation to situation and from one phase of our
    • lives to another. Social comparisons as well as parents, friends,
    • schoolmates and teacher are influential.
    • Self esteem is an effective reaction; an
    • evaluation of who you are.
    • High self-esteem is when we like ourselves. Low self-esteem is when we
    • don’t. Findings tell us that students with higher self esteem are somewhat
    • more likely to be successful in school and correlate to more favorable
    • attitudes toward school, more positive behavior in the classroom, and
    • greater popularity with other students. In fact, it may be that high
    • achievement and popularity lead to self esteem, or vice versa.
  14. What are the three levels of Kohlberg’s theory?
    Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory of moral development includes three levels: preconventional, where judgments are based on self-interest; conventional, where judgments are based on traditional family values and social expectations; and postconventional, where judgments are based on more abstract and personal ethical principles.
  15. Self Talk
    Speaking out loud to one’s self. Children often use self-talk to process and work through tasks that have several steps so that they are able to remember process the information.
  16. Zone of Proximal Development
    A window of opportunity or a period when children most ready to learn a particular skill or concept.
  17. Scaffolding
    Learning builds upon learning. Basic concepts and skills must be learned in order for more abstract, complex concepts or skills to be learned.
  18. What do you know about Vygotsky’s theory?
    • Like other develop mentalists, Vygotsky believed that it is possible for children to achieve greater cognitive gains when receive instruction in
    • their zone of proximal development. (ZPD). According to Vygotsky, children
    • seek stimulation. They desire to learn but are active learners. Vygotsky
    • felt strongly that children learn best when they are interested in learning.
    • This does not mean that children are the only determiners of what they
    • learn. It does mean that teachers and curriculum must be interesting and
    • appropriate for children. The ZPD is the key in this process. During
    • their ZPD children learn best from someone who has already learned the skill or concept they desire to learn. The best person to reach into a child’s ZPD is
    • not the teacher but rather another child who has just learned the skill.
    • This is also good reinforcement for the child who has just learned the
    • skill. The implication for teachers is that new learning should be slightly
    • ahead of the child’s developmental level in order to avoid frustration. For
    • Vygotsky, learning happens best in a social setting. In classrooms this
    • translates into group projects and working in small groups and pairs. A
    • totally silent classroom is not and appropriate learning setting according
    • to him. He believed that children should converse about their learning as it
    • provides the highest level of value from the ZPD as well as language
    • practice. Vygotsky believed that cognitive development was enhanced when
    • thought processes are verbalized. Children need to verbalize steps of action
    • and problem solving as they perform them.
  19. How David Elkind describes three applications of Piaget’s work?
    • •Communication
    • -the child’s mind is not a blank slate.
    • - Children have many ideas about the physical and natural world
    • - Children think differently than do adults
    • -Adults must learn to understand and relate to children in a way that
    • children will understand.
    • •Acquiring knowledge
    • -Children are constantly learning and relearning in order to make sense of
    • their world.
    • -Children come to school with their own ideas about space, time, causality,
    • quantity and number.
    • -The ideas children come to school with may fit their thinking but not adult
    • thinking.
    • Motivation for Learning
    • -Children are knowing creatures who seek more knowledge.
    • -The best way to nurture the motivation for knowledge is to allow the child
    • to interact spontaneously with the environment.
    • -Education through a rigid will not dull the child’s eagerness to know but
    • it will disrupt the child’s own rhythm and pace of learning.
  20. What are the stages of Piaget’s cognitive development?
    • The Sensorimotor Period- (Birth-2 years) the cognitive system is limited to
    • motor reflexes. The child builds on these reflexes to develop other
    • procedures. The child learns to generalize activities.
    • The Preoperational Thought- (2-6or7 years) Children acquire representational
    • skills in mental images and language. Children are self-oriented and have an
    • egocentric view. Use representational skills only to view the world from
    • their own perspective.
    • The Concrete Operations (6or7-11 or 12 years) Able to take another’s view
    • and take into account more than one perspective. Represent transformation as
    • well as static situations. Understand concrete problems.
    • Formal Operations- (11 or 12 years to adult) Capable of logical and abstract
    • thought and reason theoretically. Ultimate stage of development. Although
    • children revise their knowledge base, thinking is as powerful as it will
    • get.
  21. Analyze and propose a strategy for treating a fifth- grader

    who constantly annoys classmates with teasing and disruptive behavior.
    This is a hard question. First, who is he teasing? Girls only? One group only? Is he hurtful or have behavior problems that need addressing by a counselor? Does he do this when a topic is being cover he does not understand? Does the teasing overflow to the play ground? First you can always put the student in very close proximity to you, your desk or where you are most of the time. Sometimes, if you are lucky, that is all that is necessary. If I felt the student was doing this to gain attention then I might make the student my helper. I would give him/her a job that required responsibility and a certain behavior. The student could be the “homework howler” , the one who announces the days homework at the end of the day and all students write down the assignments. He could be responsible for checking in the homework daily, or in charge of giving out rewards to students working on task, or warnings to students not on task. If I felt the student engaged in this behavior to detract from a difficulty with a subject, then I would ensure that the student got personal attention from me or even a trustworthy student in class to help with the subject matter. If the student engaged in this behavior to gain the classes approval, I would institute a class meeting and have students come up with a set of rules and expectations for behavior in class. (this should be done t the beginning of the school year anyway)Then, with those expectations known students can assert peer pressure when this student behaves inappropriately.
  22. Explain why board games of strategy (e.g. checkers and

    chess) are especially important for children between the ages of 8-10.
    • Any type of play contributes to the social development of children interacting with one another.
    • Developmental theorists believe that play advances a child's cognitive
    • development, and that play provides an excellent environment for developing
    • cognition. Board games such as checkers or chess are important for children age 8-10 because these games develop logical reasoning. In these games, you have to think of strategies and anticipate your opponents' moves.
  23. Provide evidence for the following thesis: “Children with learning disabilities

    can be expected to be characterized by discrepancies between academic

    performance and ability.”
    Students that have disabilities have problems with processing information that is usually found in language-based activities. They usually have average or even above average intelligence, however, they have problems learning how to read, write and compute. It is possible that they may not see letters and words in the way that other students do, or they may not be able to pick out important information. Additionally, they may take longer to process a question or they may have difficulty in following directions. It is also difficult for them to tend to tasks, organize their assignments or even manage their time effectively. It may seem that these students are unmotivated or lazy, yet they are trying to the best of their ability. When students experience difficulties in communicating with others, it may be due to an inability to articulate or produce speech sounds. This means that they may omit words when they speak or mispronounce common words. Students diagnosed with mental retardation experience limitations in cognitive ability and adaptive behaviors. These students learn at a slower pace than other students and eventually may reach a point where their learning levels off. Students who experience a kind of emotional disturbance do not possess the ability to develop interpersonal relationships and, often times, respond inappropriately in emotional situations which prohibits them from making and keeping friends
  24. Provide evidence for the following thesis: “Intelligence consists of various

    components and is susceptible to change.”
    Howard Gardener theorizes that human intelligence is not just demonstrated through verbal or computational skills. Rather, human intelligence can appear within eight clusters that he believes better represent human intelligence. Through his cultural and biological research, he found these multiple intelligences to include the areas of music, spatial relations, interpersonal knowledge as well as mathematical and linguistic ability. These multiple intelligences are broken up into first within the area of logical-mathematical skills. In this area, the individual possesses the ability to detect patterns, reason deductively as well as think logically. Within the area of linguistic intelligence is where an individual demonstrates a mastery of language. This intelligence includes the ability to effectively manipulate language in order to express oneself effectively. Within the spatial intelligence, an individual has the ability to manipulate and create visual images in order to solve problems. Musical intelligence enables the individual to effectively recognize and create musical tones, pitches and rhythms. Body Kinesthetic intelligence is where an individual has the ability to mentally coordinate one’s own bodily movements. The personal intelligence is where an individual is capable of understanding one’s own feelings and motivations. The newly added intelligence is that of the naturalist intelligence. This is where an individual possesses the ability to identify and classify patterns in nature. While all of these intelligences are separate, Gardener theorizes that the individual intelligences rarely operate independently of the others. Rather they work together, develop and change as the individual uses them more and more to develop skills or solve problems.

  25. Analyze the following with reference to Kohlberg: “You shouldn’t do that because it’s not fair to the person who owns it.”
    Analyzing Kohlberg's theory of moral development the quote "You shouldn't do that because it's not fair to the person who owns it, "falls under Level 3- Postconventional Level of Morality. In this stage morality is judged in terms of abstract principles and not by existing rules that govern society. Moral and ethical choices rise above the laws of society, and individuals look within themselves for the answers rather that basing moral decisions on external sources of authority.
  26. Analyze the following quote with reference to Kohlberg’s theory of moral development: “You shouldn’t do that because you might get caught.”
    Lawrence Kohlberg’s special interest focuses on the moral development of children. He believes that human beings learn right and wrong by going through consecutive stages of development. Within these different stages one goes through thought processing, applying of different modes of thinking and problem solving. He further theorizes that these six stages are gone through in sequence and one does not return to a stage or skip any of the stages. Within the Preconventional Level, a child responds in accordance to cultural rules and the labels of good and bad, right or wrong. However, he interprets these labels in terms of the consequences of these actions. Stage 1 within this level states that a child makes a judgment relative to the consequences of the action. This helps the individual to determine its goodness or badness regardless of the human meaning or value of the consequences. Avoidance of the punishment is a value in its own right and not in terms of respect for an underlying moral order.
  27. Design a program that will improve the cardiovascular

    fitness of a 7th grade student who finishes a mile in 13 minutes.
    • The 7th grade is an appropriate time to introduce the FITT guidelines for physical exercise, which are the appropriate frequency, intensity, TYPE and time required for benefits to be occurred in each health-fitness component. A student who needs to improve their cardiovascular fitness should learn the principles of overload, progression, and specificity in physical condition. I would design a circuit-training course to help the students' cardiovascular fitness. I would have students run a certain distance, do pull ups, run, do sit-ups, run, then finish off with push-ups. Eventually the intensity of all activities would increase.
  28. Design a lesson plan that will help students improve their

    fielding of ground balls in softball and baseball.
    A lesson plan that will improve grounding field balls to teach the students that prior to the pitch, she/he should assume ready position with the feet parallel and wider than shoulder width apart. Flex the knees and hips and place the hands close to the ground. When possible charge the ball and stay in front of the ground ball so you can maneuver left to right. Catch a ground ball just as it leaves the ground on a bounce or after it has reached the peak of its bounce. Keep the body and glove low on the ground. To practice slowly roll ground balls between partners. Increase the speed of rolls and increase the distance between partners. Toss ground balls to the left and right of partners. Field ground balls are varying speeds and directions.
  29. What is the value of teaching children to swing from a bar?
    The value of teaching children to swing from a bar is to learn isometric contractions. Isometric contractions occur without muscle movement. Here the contraction is made against an immoveable object, and the muscles do not shorten. To receive results, contractions should be an all-put effort held for 8 to 12 seconds. A shortcoming of isometrics is that they build strength only at the angle of contraction. For this reason they should be using different joint angles in an attempt to develop strengths throughout the complete range of motion.
  30. Describe an activity that improves manipulative skills.
    Activities that improve manipulative skills are using activities with a beach ball and balloons and also activities with beanbags. Balloons provide interesting movements experiences and emphasize hand eye coordination. Keeping the balloon afloat is within the capability of young children and special education students. Beach balls are larger and more predictable in movement. Emphasis should be placed on the proper footwork. Since these objects move slowly, there is ample time for students to learn proper footwork such as preparing for a volley, catching and striking. Activities with beanbags provide valuable learning experiences. All parts of the body can be used. For tossing and catching, through, the beanbag encourages manipulation with the hands; playground balls lead to arm and body catching. Beanbag activities can be used with older children by using challenging activities such as juggling, different and unique methods of propulsion and the split vision drill.
  31. Describe and give examples of sensorimotor and perceptual

    motor skills.
    • The Sensorimotor Stage is the first of the four stages of
    • cognitive development. In this stage, infants construct an understanding of the
    • world by coordinating sensory experiences (such as seeing and hearing) with
    • physical, motoric actions. Perceptual motor skills are movement
    • related skills that are an essential aspect of human development and growth.
  32. Describe three strength exercises and the specific benefits

    that each entails.
    • Chest:
    • bench press, chest press machine, pushups, pec deck machine

    • Back:
    • seated row machine, back extensions, lat pulldowns

    • Shoulders:
    • overhead press, lateral raise, front raise

    • Biceps:
    • bicep curls, hammer curls, concentration curls

    • Triceps:
    • tricep extensions, dips, kickbacks

    • Lower Body:
    • Squats, lunges, leg press machines, deadlifts, calf raises

    • Abdominals:
    • crunches, reverse crunches, oblique twists, pelvic tilts
    Definitive "Hard Gainer"

    Delicate Built Body

    Flat Chest



    Lightly Muscled

    Small Shouldered

    Takes Longer to Gain Muscle


    Hard Body

    Hourglass Shaped (Female)

    Rectangular Shaped (Male)

    Mature Muscle Mass

    Muscular Body

    Excellent Posture

    Gains Muscle Easily

    Gains Fat More Easily Than Ectomorphs

    Thick Skin
    • The body of the extreme endomorph is round and soft. The physique presents the illusion that much of the mass has been concentrated in the abdominal area.
    • This may or may not be true. The arms and legs of the extreme endomorph are
    • short in length and taper. This may give the appearance of stalkiness. The
    • hands and feet of the endomorph are comparatively small, and the upper arms and
    • thighs are often more developed than the lower parts of the arms or legs. The
    • body has a high waist.
  36. What are the role and limits of temporary/invented spelling

    in emerging writers?
    Invented spelling helps young writers sound out words. They are trying to convey their thoughts on paper but are not sure of the spelling. It is normal to see levels of invented spelling through out elementary school. Students need to be able to spell basic sight words that are reviewed over and over again. Invented spelling is especially common during writers workshop when they are creating their stories
  37. Discuss the use of story maps for complex stories. What do they include? How can they be used?
    • The brain thrives on pattern making and detection. This is where the brain has the ability to detect and make patterns of meaning.
    • Comprehension can increase when readers create a mental model or pattern
    • of the material that they are reading.
    • A story map deciphers cues, recognizes relationships and indexes
    • information. A story map allows a reader
    • to extract meaningful patterns from confusion so that they can figure it out in
    • their own way. This kind of a
    • visual map can improve recall speed and comprehension of the reader because the
    • reader connects the actions of the characters to their goals or can focus attention
    • on the character’s movements, visualize locations for several seconds and
    • relate them to the model or pattern they are building in the story map. Three essentials of higher brain
    • functions are categorization, memory and learning. The last depends on the first two and the second depends on
    • the first. Perceptual categorization
    • is essential for memory.
    • Therefore, a reader can begin reading a new topic by making a story map. This mind map can be created before reading
    • is begun or even while reading is taking place. The reader can post up patterns of the topic so that the brain
    • has “addresses” at which to store key information and make relationships. During or after the reading, the reader
    • will revise, alter or update the story map to add new information, insights and
    • corrections. There are several
    • types of story maps: they can focus on beginning, middle and end of stories,
    • they can focus on the traits of characters, they can focus on problem and
    • problem solving, they can focus on the setting of the story, or they can focus
    • on relating and connecting prior knowledge, or a story map can resemble the one
    • below:

    • Key words
    • Personalize (Prior
    • knowledge)

    Topic in center

    Symbols, icons,

    • Pictures, illustrations
    • Strong colors
  38. Describe the seven elements of systematic instruction.
    • The seven elements of systematic instruction include
    • anticipatory set, objective and purpose, input, modeling, checking for
    • understanding, guided practice and independent practice. The anticipatory set is the introduction to what is going to be learned. The objective and purpose is what the students are going to learn and why they need to learn it.
    • Input is the when the teacher looks at the objective to see how the
    • lesson should be taught and designed to get the most successful outcome. Modeling is when the teacher shows what
    • is expected of the students so they have an idea of what they are going to do
    • for the lesson. In checking for
    • understanding the teacher should be walking around the classroom to ensure that all students understand the material, and if not she must go over it again with those individual students. Guided
    • practice is where students practice what they have already learned with the
    • supervision of the teacher. Lastly, independent practice is where the teacher assigns independent work of the material learned and the student is capable of doing it with less errors.
  39. What is the difference between the “independent,”

    “instructional,” and “frustration” reading levels?
    • At the independent reading level he/she can read with no more than one error in word recognition in each 100 words and has a comprehension score of at least 90 percent. At this level the child reads orally in a natural tone, free from tension. The instructional reading level is usually determined from books which the child can read with no more than one word-recognition error in approximately 20 words. The comprehension score should be 75 percent or more. At this level, the child reads orally, after
    • silent study, without tension. The frustration level is marked by the book in
    • which the child obviously struggles to read. Errors are numerous. The child
    • reads without a natural rhythm and in an unnatural voice
  40. Summarize M.A.K. Halliday’s theories on language development in children.
    Halliday’s Systemic-Functional Linguistics (SFL) is a theory of language centered on the notion of language function. SFL starts at social context, and looks at how language both acts upon, and is constrained by, this social context.
  41. Read the passage below from The Story of My Life (1903), Helen Keller’s autobiography; then complete the exercise that follows.

    Have you ever been at sea in a dense fog, when it seemed as if a tangible white darkness shut you in, and the great ship, tense and anxious, groped her way toward the shore with plummet and sounding-line, and you waited with beating heart for something to happen? I was like that ship before my education began, only I was without compass or sounding-line, and had no way of knowing how near the harbor was. “Light! Give me light!” was the wordless cry of my soul, and the light of love shone on me in that very
    • Write a response in which you describe the use of analogy in
    • the passage. Be sure to cite specific evidence from the text.

    Helen Keller had the disability of being blind. Although she was blind, it did not discourage her from pursuing a dream of having an education. She states that in a “dense fog…it seemed as it a tangible white darkness shut you in”. The darkness is an analogy for her blindness. Her disability caused her frustration because she could not see what was happening around her. But then “a great ship…groped her way to shore.” The great ship is symbolic of her new found love of education that saved her from the frustration of being unable to see. Although Helen is unable to see, she states “Light, give me light.” The light is an analogy for finally realizing and understanding the importance of an education to her. The light symbolized a light bulb of clarity and the knowledge she has been seeking
  42. Target word Student’s Spelling
    Yellow Yelloe
    Natural Nacheral
    Muffin Muffin
    Doctor Dockter
    Special Spechul
    Sign Sine
    Quick Quick
    • This fifth grade student has demonstrated knowledge of sound-symbol relationships on all the words in this list as far as beginning sounds and blends are concerned, such as the blend "sp" in special. An understanding of consonant-doubling is demonstrated in the words yelloe and muffin. However, there are mistakes in some of the ending sounds, such as the "oe" in yelloe and the "er" in docter. These mistakes are common for a first or second grader but are not expected of a fifth grader. The fifth-grade student's sight vocabulary should be such that these mistakes are eliminated due to practice and exposure to written words. Another weakness of this student is in the area of medial sounds, as shown in the words natural/nacheral and
    • special/spechul. This student's development is at the transitional level,
    • and the student is still using sign-symbol relationships mastered at the lower
    • grade level. This student could build up a better understanding of the
    • correct spelling of words through practice and exposure to more
    • literature. More READING would also help to develop better morphological
    • understanding, as of the relationship between natural and nature.

    • This student clearly has learned the common sounds
    • associated with letters and has also learned common sound patterns resulting
    • from blending two letters together, such as "ch" in
    • "nachural" and the "ck" in "dockter." In
    • "yelloe," the child is demonstrating an understanding of the common
    • sound formed by "oe." Many of these words that were misspelled are
    • words that based on their phonetic sounds could be spelled a number of ways,
    • though only one of the ways is correct. For example, the "ck" sound
    • in the words "doctor" and "quick" are the same, however
    • they are spelled differently. Misspelled words such as yellow, natural, doctor
    • and sign are best learned as "sight" words, in which a child is
    • exposed to the words frequently in reading, on bulletin boards or on spelling
    • tests until he/she recognizes and remembers the irregularity in their spelling
    • pattern and can remember how they are spelled.
  43. Discuss three different sound devices used in poetry.
    • Many poets pay close attention to sounds as well as meanings. The best kind of poetry is when sound and sense are connected because the meanings of words are reinforced by the sounds of the words. Poets can make a passage read quickly or slowly by arranging the words and sounds in particular combinations. Some of these tools of sound that poets use to build poetry are
    • alliteration, assonance and consonance.
    • Alliteration is a very old device in English poetry. Alliteration is the repetition of
    • consonant sounds at the beginning of words or within words: “after life’s
    • fitful fever”. And is used to
    • create unity, emphasis as well as a musical effect. Alliteration, for ludicrous effect, is also common in
    • nonsense verse, jingles and tongue twisters: “seven silly swans swam…” This pattern is dependent on sounds of
    • letters and not merely on the repetition of the letter itself. Assonance is the close repetition of
    • the middle vowel sounds between different consonant sounds: fade/pale Within poetry, assonance is used for
    • rhythmic effect or unity. Assonance
    • is often used to create near rhymes instead of end rhymes or folk ballads that
    • may have been hurriedly improvised.
    • Again, here the vowel sound is the determining factor and not the
    • letter. Consonance is the close
    • repetition of identical consonant sounds before and after differing vowel
    • sounds: long/late. Familiar
    • compound words are also consonant: pingpong, fulfill. Like alliteration, consonance is used to create emphasis and
    • unity
  44. Read the following paragraph carefully and arrange the

    sentences in the most coherent order.
    1) More than half of this time is necessary to allow the rising or the resting of the dough. 2) Or you
    will have to bake them earlier and freeze them. 3) To make a good
    croissant takes eleven hours. 4) So if you want fresh croissants for
    breakfast, you will have to stay up all night.
    (3) To make a good croissant takes eleven hours. (1) More than half of this time is necessary to allow the rising or the resting of the dough. (4) So if you want fresh croissants for breakfast, you will have to stay up all night. (2) Or you will have to bake them earlier and freeze them.
  45. Compare and contrast the main tenets of Judaism and Christianity.
    • Judaism and Christianity each have widely diverging views of
    • their respective relationship to the other. Persecution of Jews, including
    • pogroms was common throughout Christian Europe. Organized violence by their neighbors, restrictive land ownership regulations, professional prohibitions, mandatory dress codes and ecclesiastical rules restricting marriages between Christians and Jews all had detrimental effects on Jewish Cultures. Christians emphasize common historical heritage and religious continuity with the ancient spiritual lineage of the Jews. Both Jews and Christians believe in the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, the God of the Tanakh, the creator of the universe. Both religions reject the view that God is entirely immanent, and within the world as a physical presence. Both religions reject the view that God is entirely transcendent, and thus separate from the world. Both religions reject atheism, on the one hand, and polytheism, on the other. Both religions agree that God shares both transcendent and immanent qualities. How these religions resolve this issue is where the religions differ. Christianity posits that God is a trinity; in this view God exists as three distinct persons who share a single divine essence, or substance. Judaism sees God as a unity, and views trinitarianism as both incomprehensible and a violation of the Bible's teaching that God is one. In addition, Christianity teaches that God became especially immanent through the Incarnation of Jesus Christ, who is believed to be at once fully God and fully human. Judaism rejects the notion that Jesus or any human could be God, or that God could be joined to the material world in such fashion
  46. How did the advance of electricity contribute to economic

    development and change the social life of the United States?
    • The age of industry and invention in America developed
    • during the period from the Civil War to the beginning of the 20th century. Before Thomas Edison, an
    • inventor, there was no system invented that could make electric light
    • affordable. Edison developed a
    • better electric lamp as well as a system that would generate electricity
    • cheaply. Cities were now replacing
    • dim gaslights with bright electric streetlights. By the 1920s Americans had electricity in their homes. They could now enjoy the things that
    • made their life more comfortable.
    • These items that used electricity were machines like the vacuum cleaner,
    • the washing machine and the refrigerator.

    • MANY WAYS.
  47. Compare and contrast the main tenets of Taoism and Buddhism.
    • One fundamental belief of Buddhism is reincarnation. One must go through many cycles of birth, living and death and if a person then releases their attachment to themselves, they can attain Nirvana.
    • Nirvana is a state of liberation and freedom from suffering. The tree training consist of Sila, Samahdi and Prajna. Sila is based on two fundamental principles:
    • that all living entities are equal and that to do unto others as you would
    • wish done to you. Therefore, Sila
    • is based on good conduct, virtue and morality. The second principal Samahdi refers to concentration,
    • meditation and mental development.
    • In Buddhism it is believed that developing one’s mind is the path to
    • wisdom will which lead you to personal freedom. It is also good to develop mental strengths because it helps
    • us to maintain good conduct. The
    • third principle, Pranja is the real heart of Buddhism. Wisdom will emerge as long as your mind
    • is pure and calm. The Four Noble
    • Truths of Buddhism explore human suffering. Dukkha demonstrates that suffering has many causes:
    • sickness, loss, pain and failure.
    • Samudaya can take many forms:
    • cravings of sensual pleasure, desire for fame, desire to avoid
    • unpleasant sensations like jealousy and fear. Samudaya states that the desire of suffering is when someone
    • desires to have and control things.
    • Nirodha is when the mind experiences complete freedom by reaching the
    • state of Nirvana and lets go of any desire or craving. Magga means that the eightfold path
    • leads to the cessation of suffering.
    • In Buddhism there are five rules to live by: Do not kill, do not steal, do not lie, do not misuse sex and
    • do not consume alcohol or other drugs.

    • Taoism is the
    • first cause of the universe and is all around you through all in life,
    • therefore, everyone needs to listen to find enlightenment. Each believer wants to be one with
    • Taoism. In Taoism, one does not
    • pray to a God or to others, believers seek answers to life’s problems through
    • inner meditation and outer observation.
    • Time is cyclical and not linear.
    • Taoism promotes health and vitality. Five main organs of the body correspond to five parts of the
    • sky: fire, water, wood, metal and
    • earth. Each believer must nurture
    • the “Ch’i” (air and breath) that has been given to them. The development of compassion,
    • moderation and humility are sought.
    • The art of “wu wei” are followed which states that nature should be
    • allowed to take its course. A believer should always plan in advance and consider the consequences before making it. In Taoism, it is believed that all people are generally compassionate in nature and will show this compassion without expecting a reward. A believer of Taoism is kind to others because this action tends to be reciprocated.
  48. Describe the contribution of Albert Bandura to cognitive and behavioral theories of childhood development
    • Albert Bandura's social learning theory contends that the personal
    • qualities that characterize individuals are cognitive. In other words, there are different ways of seeing, thinking about, and interacting with the world. It emphasizes the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others. Bandura (1977) states: "learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do. Fortunately, most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action." social learning theory explains human behavior in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences. The component processes underlying observational learning are: attention, retention, motor reproduction, and motivation. Because it encompasses attention, memory and motivation, social learning theory spans both cognitive and behavioral frameworks.
  49. Give an overview of the Piaget’s four stages of cognitive growth.
    • Piaget believed that children move through 4 different stages when constructing knowledge. The first stage is the sensomotor stage. In
    • this stage, infants up to age 2 simply react to the stimulus around them in a
    • non-conceptual form of thought. During the next phase, the preoperational
    • stage, children begin to have control over language and make connections
    • between themselves and thoughts and feelings. This stage is from ages 2 to
    • about 6 years old. Following preoperational is the concrete-operational stage.
    • in this stage children age 7-11 start to begin to reason in an objective and
    • logical way. the world around them becomes more real and concrete. In the concrete operational stage, children begin to see that others may
    • have different perspectives and attitudes from their own. After this phase, children 12-17 go through the formal-operational stage. in this stage children can reason for themselves, contemplate abstract ideas like morality and ethics.
  50. Describe Maslow’s theory of self-actualization.
    • Maslow was a humanistic psychologist who believed that people are not controlled by mechanical forces (behaviorism) or unconscious
    • instinctual impulses of psychoanalysis alone. Maslow focused on human potential, believing that humans strive to reach the highest levels of their capabilities. Some people reach higher levels of creativity, of consciousness and wisdom. Maslow set up a pyramid hierarchical theory of needs in which all the basic needs are at the bottom, and the needs concerned with man's highest potential are at the top. each level of the pyramid is dependent on the previous level. The first level is that of biological/physiological needs. Then
    • there is security / safety needs: children, more than adults, often display signs of insecurity and their need to be safe. The third level is social
    • (love, affection and belongingness) needs. Then comes the need of ego and esteem. People need a stable, firmly based, high level of self-respect, and respect from others in order to feel satisfied, self confident and valuable. If these needs are not met, the person feels inferior, weak, helpless and worthless. Finally, there is self-actualization and fulfillment. Maslow describes self-actualization as an ongoing process. Self-actualizing people are, with one single exception, involved in a cause outside their own skin. The are devoted, work at something, something very precious to them--some calling or vocation.
  51. List the dominant abilities of the left and right hemispheres of the brain. What

    implications does this research hold for teachers?
    • The human brain is divided into 2 hemispheres. The right side
    • controls the left of our bodies vice versa. The 2 halve of the brain are,
    • however, thought have influence over much more. It is thought that the left brain is the more organized side, while the right brain is the creative side. Left
    • brain functions -uses logic, detail oriented, words and language, math and
    • science, order/pattern perception, knows object name, reality based, practical and safe. Right brain functions -uses feelings,"big picture" oriented,
    • imagination, philosophy and religion, believing, appreciates, SPATIAL
    • perception, risk taking. Our personality can be thought of as a result of the
    • degree to which these left and right brains interact, or, in some cases, do not
    • interact. It is a simplification to identify "left brain" types who
    • are very analytical and orderly. We likewise certainly know of the artistic,
    • unpredictability and creativity of "right brain" types. But each of us
    • draws upon specific sides of our brain for a variety of daily functions, depending on such things as our education and life experiences. The choices of which brain is in control of which situations is what makes our personalities and determines our character. Teachers need to be aware of which brain dominates in certain situations with their students. We, as teachers, need to provide opportunities for children to learn, no matter what brain they are thinking with.
  52. Describe the difference between objective and essay examinations.
  53. Define and give a detailed example of the word “culture.”
    • Culture is the collection of all values, beliefs, traditions, languages, art, rituals, political systems, food, religions rites and behavior shared by a particular group of people. When a group shares these
    • elements and recognizes other members by these elements than they are
    • recognizing their shared culture. For example, the Inuit people of North
    • America share a belief system based on their life in the Arctic. Inuits in two
    • separate villages will hunt whales, dress similarly, AND PREPARE food in the same manner and pass along their history to their children in very similar
    • ways. They may live hundreds of miles from each other but share the same
    • culture. In contrast, people who are removed from their own culture and placed in another often feel disoriented, isolated and unsure of themselves.
  54. What is the basic idea behind the theory of Behaviorism and what are its pedagogical implications?
    • Behaviorism is a theory in psychology that suggests that human behavior is merely a response to repeated stimuli. B.J. Skinner was a famous proponent and researcher of this theory. Skinner work states that when humans receive reinforcement for a certain behavior that behavior can be stopped or encouraged, depending on the reinforcement. With children this takes
    • the form of negative and positive reinforcements for the behaviors exhibited.
    • If a child throw a tantrum and receives a time out or loss of attention from
    • the desired adult, then behaviorist believe he will be less and less likely to
    • throw another tantrum, until eventually the tantrums will stop. Conversely, if
    • a child receives praise and rewards for a desired behavior, the child will be
    • more likely to continue that behavior until the reward is not even necessary.
  55. Describe the painting “Paul Reveres Ride” describing each artistic element employed.
    The painting is a black and white most likely an ink drawing. It shows Paul Revere motioning to people to come out and get ready to go to war. You can see men in the background getting dressed as they walking to their gathering spot where they will wait for the “Redcoats” to arrive. It is a very dark painting and I believe the artist did this to let us know the mood of the evening. This was the start of a huge war something that would change these peoples lives forever and the artist wanted us to feel that. Overall Paul Revere is the main character in this painting this is to show us what role he played on that evening of his Midnight Ride. IT IS SOMBER AND RITUALISTIC.

    • The painting by Grant Wood, titled The Midnight Ride of Paul Revere It is obvious this painting has the elements of color and contrast. You have the white dominant road and building. The background then has darker tones. This leads me into movement. Your attention is drawn to the lower
    • left where you find Paul Revere and you continue to move to the right following the road, his pathway. Of course, that leads you to the background.
    • This painting has balance. The bright white buildings and road balances with the darker greens in the background
  56. Explain the meter of a waltz.
    The meter of a waltz is always triple. Triple meter defines waltzes. Usually the time signature is 3/4, but it could be 3/8. In triple meter, the emphasis is on beat one, creating the pattern strong, weak, AND WEAK.
  57. Compare and contrast folk dance and ballet.
    • Folk dance is recreational or ceremonial dance performed usually by members of the community to which the dance is traditional while ballet is a form of theatrical dance that began to evolve in Western Europe during the Renaissance (1300-1600). While steps in folk dance are usually
    • simple and repeated so that any member of the community can participate,
    • technique used in ballet is highly elaborated and codified over the centuries
    • into a well defined, though flexible, system called academic ballet, or danse
    • d'ecole. Though toe dancing is a part of the feature of ballet, ballet
    • technique can be performed without toe dancing. Because of the well defined
    • system of technique, ballet dancers need vigorous training and years of
    • experience to master all steps. A WELL-TRAINED ballet dancer can be considered as a great athlete from the physical developmental point of view. Folk dance does not require an audience while ballet is usually accompanied by music, scenery, and costumes for the presentation for the audience. Steps of folk dance are passed down through many generations while ballet steps continue to evolve particularly by the contribution of choreographers and skills of gifted dancers of the time. Because the steps were first named and codified in France during the reign of King Louis XIV, French is the international language of ballet.
  58. Describe the role of the Chorus in Greek and Roman drama of the classical period.
    • The chorus was one of the most important components of the play. It narrates and reflects on the action. Without them, the audience would have no background information, and the play would be more confusing. They
    • sang, or sometimes said, basic information. They were the narrators of the
    • play. They also acted as crowds. They would dance in the orchestra to show what was going on in the scene. They were also like the extras in the play. If a
    • large crowd was needed, they were the crowd.
  59. Explain the difference between comedy and farce.
    • Comedies and farces are both intended to be funny. Comedies
    • can be slap-stick, involving physical humor or they can use other comedic
    • devises, such as puns and simple situation comedy. Farces on the other hand are satirical in nature and are meant to poke fun at someone, or something. They often exaggerate the tendencies of people and organizations to create humor. They can be more sarcastic and cynical, while comedies may be silly and light-hearted.
  60. Explain the meaning of timbre in music and its relationship

    to the texture of music.
    • Timbre is the quality of the sound. It is a quality that is
    • somewhat hard to define, but allows us to hear differences in music and singers even if the same note is being played or sung. Texture is the different layers of instruments and sounds within a piece of music. These two are related because music of different textures also HAS different timbres. A full
    • orchestra will have a different texture than a 4 man guitar band. However
    • within that band the bass guitar will have a different timbre from the lead
    • guitar.
  61. Briefly describe the functions that music has in society.
    Music has many functions in societies around the world. These functions can be creative, cultural, political, inspirational, educational, confrontational, calming and unifying. Many cultures rely on music to pass along beliefs, traditions and history. PERHAPS YOU WANT TO REFLECT A LITTLE ON MUSIC IN ASIA, WHICH HAS SUCH DISTINCTIVE SOUNDS AND PURPOSES.
  62. Discuss the basic purposes of a youth physical education program.
    Physical education plays an important role in the complete development of a student. Physical education promotes physical growth, cognitive growth and social growth. A good P.E. program incorporates areas such as coordination, balance, fitness, health, cooperative skills, social interactions and self-esteem. Activities and lessons are design to improve and refine locomotor skills like running, walking and skipping. Cooperative games teach students to work together and to be successful at all skill levels. Specific games and activities promote team building and problem solving. Other games can be designed to be cross-curricular and incorporate disciplines such as math, science and language. Students learn how the muscle, bones and organs of their bodies are maintained and kept healthy through physical exercise. Physical education contributes to the development the whole student, AND PROMOTES LIFE-LONG FITNESS AWARENESS.

    • There are three goals in youth physical education:
    • 1st Goal – Movement Skills and Movement Knowledge
    • * Motor Learning
    • * Biomechanics
    • * Exercise Physiology and Health – related Physical Fitness
    • 2nd Goal – Self Image and Person Development
    • * Human Growth and Development
    • *Psychology
    • *Aesthetics
    • 3rd Goal – Social Development
    • *Sociology
    • *Historical Perspectives
  63. Describe the difference and give examples of aerobic and anaerobic exercises.
    • Aerobic exercise by definition is an exercise that requires oxygen. These exercises use the large muscle group and work the heart and lungs at a higher rate to get more oxygen to the muscles. Running, biking swimming are all examples of aerobic exercise. Anaerobic exercise is exercise without the use of oxygen in the muscles. These exercises are usually short in duration and involve rapid bursts of energy. A good example of this is weight lifting. Weightlifters lift heavy loads in rapid succession with longer rests in between intervals. [MARY CULLEN] ANAEROBIC EXERCISE REQUIRES
  64. Describe the locomotor skills that a kindergartener might be expected to perform.
    Kindergarteners should be able to perform basic locomotor skills. They should be able to run, jump on 2 feet, hop on one foot, leap, gallop and skip. They should be able to propel themselves on a skate board or other wheeled device. They need to able to balance well enough to walk across a simple balance beam. They need to be able to walk thru objects like hoops, as well as walk in and out of hoops laid on the floor. They need to be able to go under and over beams, place in their range.
  65. Using examples, explain the difference between locomotor skills and nonlocomotor skills.
    • Locomotor skills consist of actions that cause movement. Locomotor skills consist of running, walking, hopping, skipping, galloping, jumping, sliding and crawling. These skills all physically move a person from one point to another. Nonlocomotor skills are just the opposite. No movement
    • from place to place occurs. Examples of nonlocomotor skills include bending,
    • twisting, pushing, pulling, swinging and rocking. A game of tag can be
    • comprised of both types of skills. A player uses locomotor skills to run after
    • a student to tag and the tagged student may be required to stop running and
    • bend or twist out of the way of others.
  66. Describe the various physical skills involved in receiving and making a pass in soccer.
    Making a pass in soccer requires many separate skills function in conjunction with each other. Eyes need to track the ball to coordinate with the foot on precise timing to strike the oncoming ball. Large motor skills are necessary to keep the player running while the pass is received and later passed to another player. Endurance and conditioning help keep the heart and lungs working efficiently to prevent the player from tiring before the pass is completed. Muscle memory is activated from previous passing experiences so that the player uses the proper part of her foot to receive and to execute the pass.

  67. Define coordination and give examples of two activities that might increase

    Coordination is the skillful interaction of movements. When the hand reaches out to grab the pencil in front of you, then your hand, arm, brain and eye have all coordinated successfully. When striving to improve coordination, using activities that require repetition and build muscle memory are ideal. Such activities could include kicking a ball back and forth to a partner, throwing beanbags at progressively spaced targets, or throwing and catching a large ball and moving to smaller and smaller balls as students improve.
  68. Discuss the contributions of Isadora Duncan to modern dance.
    • Isodora Duncan was introduced to classical music, Shakespeare, poetry, literature and art by her mother when she was very young. She began
    • dancing in London and as her popularity grew, she began performing on great
    • stages throughout Europe. She always had a vision for the education of young
    • children, grounding their learning in art, culture, movement, and spirituality
    • along with traditional academic lessons. In 1904, she began her first school in
    • Germany selecting children from the poorer class and she provided all of their
    • materials from her own pocket. She developed her principle of using motions
    • familiar to all races and cultures such as walking, running, skipping, jumping,
    • kneeling, and rising. Her teachings were influenced by the Greek ideal and she expressed a theory of continuous movement. Isodora created a cultural phenomenon which changed the character of traditional ballet and also focused attention on the political and social statements insisting that the role of the Arts be a reflection of our time. She had a tremendous influence in dance and in society on cultural norms.
  69. Compare and contrast the uses of a thrust stage and a

    traditional stage in the history of theatre.
    • A thrust stage is a stage surrounded on three sides by the audience.
    • This type of stage might also have a section of the stage that extends into
    • the audience. This stage increases the stage area. The purpose of
    • this
    • type of stage is to provide a greater range of motion and possibilities for
    • the actors, as well as the audience. The actor is able to do more with
    • his
    • ability since the audience will be able to see three sides of him, as
    • opposed to just the front. The audience is able to get three different
    • views and perspectives of the stage, actors, and performance. This stage
    • gets the audience more involved as the feel closer to the actors. THE ADVANTAGE OF THE TRADITIONAL STAGE
  70. Analyze some of the the major differences between music and

    musical instruments in the West and Asia.
    • Asian music sounds different because the scales,
    • instruments, and composing techniques used are different. For example, a scale
    • in Western music has 12 steps to an octave. Most Western composers have based
    • their music on diatonic scales. A diatonic scale has eight notes to an octave
    • arranged in a pattern of half steps and whole steps. But the Arab scale
    • has 17 steps to an octave, and the Indian scale has 22 steps. Such scales are
    • called microtonal because they are made up of microtones-that is, intervals
    • smaller than a half step. The chief types of Asian music are those of (1)
    • China, (2) Japan, (3) India, (4) the Arab countries, and (5) Indonesia.
    • Chinese music, in particular, uses the 5 tone scale, as opposed to the diatonic
    • scale in the U.S. Western music can be divided into three main
    • types: classical music, popular music, and folk music. Classical
    • music tends to use instruments from the orchestra, which are divided up into
    • four families of instruments: strings, woodwinds, brass, and
    • percussion. Popular music, or "entertainment" music usually
    • uses guitars, drums, and keyboards. Folk music is played with acoustic
    • instruments such as guitars and harmonicas. Musical instruments in the
    • United States to be more Brass and percussion in US. Reed and string
    • instruments are generally used in Asia, and the rhythms are much more of a
    • "free form" type style, with less percussion and even rhythms
  71. Discuss the ways in which African music has influenced the

    music of the United States.
    • Drums are the most important instruments in African
    • music. Most African music features complex rhythms. Two of these
    • rhythmic influences can be recognized while listening to jazz music.
    • Improvisation is the ability to create new music with new rhythms
    • spontaneously. Syncopation is the ability to make even patterns
    • uneven, and putting accents in unexpected places. The earliest jazz was
    • played by black Americans, who had little or no formal training in western
    • music. As jazz grew in popularity, its sound was influenced by musicians
    • with formal training and classical backgrounds. African.
    • Other African rhythmic influence can be heard in the music of the blues,
    • ragtime, and even the rap music of today, which emphasizes rhythm rather
    • than melody.

  72. What is the difference between tempo and accent in music?
    • Tempo is the speed in which the music is played. Grave
    • is the term used for music that is played VERY slowly! Andante is more of
    • a walking pace. Allegro is very quick. Presto is even
    • faster! When playing music, the composer may want certain notes to
    • be accented (played louder or stressed). For example, a waltz is grouped
    • into 3 beats per measure. The accent is on the 1st beat of every
    • measure. When the conductor of an orchestra wants a note to be accented,
    • you'll notice that he or she will make big gestures to make sure that those
    • notes are stressed and played louder. An accent marking is indicated with
    • a < sign over the note.
  73. Describe the process by which any woodwind instrument generates

    and changes pitch.
    • Most woodwind instruments are tubes that are made from
    • wood. Players blow their "wind," or breath, into them to make sounds. Some woodwinds are cone-shaped where the tube starts small and gets bigger along the way to the end or cylindrical, where the size of the tube stays about the same from one end to the other. The length of a woodwind instrument’s tube is related to the pitch produced. If a tube has a hole halfway up, the length of resonating tube is only as long as the tube down to the hole. Cover the hole, and the pitch lowers—the longer length of tube resonates. In this way the player can change pitches by changing the length of the resonating part of the tube of the instrument. If a player covers the top three finger holes, the length of resonating tube is just that long—down to the bottom hole that is covered. Cover another hole down the instrument, and the pitch is lower because the solid tube is now longer. Cover all the holes and the lowest note can be played—the solid tube is now the whole length of the instrument. All modern woodwind instruments have keys. These keys either cover finger holes or press something else that covers or uncovers a hole.
  74. Discuss the contributions of Plato to education.
  75. Analyze the educational theories and practices of John

    • For Dewey, it was vitally important that education not be
    • the teaching of mere dead fact, but that the skills and knowledge which
    • students learned be integrated fully into their lives as citizens and human
    • beings. At the Laboratory School which Dewey and his wife Alice ran at the
    • University of Chicago, children learned much of their early chemistry, physics,
    • and biology by investigating the natural processes which went into cooking
    • breakfast--an activity they did in their classes. This practical
    • element--learning by doing--sprang from his subscription to the philosophical
    • school of Pragmatism.
    • Dewey was essentially the seminal thinker of educational progressivism. His
    • ideas, while quite popular, were never broadly and deeply integrated into the
    • practices of American public schools, though some of his values and terms were
    • widespread. Progressive education was essentially scrapped during the Cold War,
    • when the dominant concern in education was creating and sustaining a scientific
    • and technological elite for military purposes. In the post-Cold War period,
    • however, progressive education has reemerged in many school reform and
    • education theory circles as a thriving field of inquiry.
  76. Discuss strategies and adaptations you might use in teaching

    English Language Learners.
    • As a teacher with a class population of 90% ESL I can give
    • you some useful strategies I use to help facilitate learning. First are the
    • SDAIE techniques. It is important to provide ESL students with visual clues to what they are learning. Vocabulary improves when attached to concrete objects. I use realia whenever possible when introducing new topics. Plastic fruit, real or plastic rock, leaves, and other objects help students make prior knowledge connections. Provide text books, dictionaries, and literature books that have accompanying pictures to give context clues for new words and ideas. It is important for ESL student to hear the language spoken properly. So provide plenty of opportunity for oral reading by the teacher, using voice inflection, facial expression and gesture to impart meaning. When learning a new word or idea, give the student an opportunity to write, draw, speak and see examples of the idea. Labeling items around the room is an activity I use often with my students. Beginners start with one word descriptions like “ window” and as we advance we change description to “ This is a window” or This window is big” etc. Fluency can be assisted in learning a easy text and repeatedly reading that text. Predictable text is also helpful, where the student learns proper
    • sentence structure and is only required to change one or two words each time.
    • For example, “The boy has a bat.” The boy has a ball”, “the boy
    • has______.”
  77. According to Erickson, each human developmental stage is

    characterized by a crisis that must be resolved. With reference to Erickson's

    theory, briefly describe how the resolution of the first psychosocial crisis,

    trust versus mistrust, influences a child's development.
    • According to American Psychologist, Erik Erickson, humans
    • must pass through stages that involve a crisis and resolution. The first stage
    • is that of trust or mistrust. The parent’s responsiveness to the infant’s
    • needs, like feeding, is what is important in this stage. If the infant can
    • trust that someone will fulfill his/her needs, then the infant can progress in
    • a healthy manner. The child begins to understand that he/she will be taken of.
    • If this does not happen, the child can develop life-long problems. Attachment
    • disorders can result. In that case, children are less cooperative and more
    • aggressive in their interactions with their parents. As they grow older, they
    • become less competent and sympathetic with peers. Many have problems in long
    • term relationships.
  78. When two ten-year-old children from different cultural

    groups were asked to draw the same picture, they drew very differently.

    Explain why this would happen according to what you know about a child's

    cognitive development.
    • Two, ten year olds from different cultural groups can draw a
    • picture differently because of the changes which occur to a person's cognitive
    • structures, abilities, and processes. The most widely known theory of childhood
    • cognitive development was proposed by Jean Piaget in 1969. He proposed the idea
    • that cognitive development consisted of the development of logical competence,
    • and that the development of this competence consists of four major stages
    • (sensori-motor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational).
    • He also argued that a child's cognitive performance depended more on the stage
    • of development he was in than on the specific task being performed. More recent
    • studies have cast some doubt on Piaget's theory of homogeneous performance
    • within a given stage. Instead, it is now believed that performance varies
    • greatly within each stage and depends more on the acquisition and development
    • of language, perception, decision rules, and real-world knowledge for any
    • individual child.
  79. Analyze the child’s developmental stage based on the dialogue below between a mother and child.
    Child: “Me see.”

    Mother: “Yes, honey, I see you.”

    Child: “You drink.”

    Mother: “I’m drinking some milk.”

    • The child’s developmental stage of the dialogue between the mother and child shows that it is the sensorimotor stage. The child’s intelligence is manifested
    • in action. For example, when the child says, “You drink.” And the mom responds with, “I’m drinking some milk.” This focuses on the action of the
    • mother. Also, the child proceeds to the acquisition of language. The child is very egocentric at this stage. An example that shows this is when he or she says, “Me see.” And the mother responds with “Yes, honey, I see you.”

    Pick one of the following grade levels: K-2, 3-5 or 6-8. Describe the effects of one of the following cultural differences on the student you selected:

    Parental belief in the difference in genders the role of expectations socioeconomic factors

    • The cultural differences for a Hispanic female student in the sixth grade are quite different from the American culture. Parents treat Hispanic females more differently than Hispanic males. Females tend to the mother
    • figure and have adult responsibilities at home especially of she has younger
    • siblings. She will make dinner, change diapers, and clean the house, as if she is the mother. Sometimes when there are a lot of children in the family, more pressure and responsibility is placed on them. If this student lives in a
    • big family, there may not be enough food or clothes. If the mother and father are working to pay for the house
    • and food, there may not be enough money for books or any educational
    • materials.
  80. Briefly describe the difference between a flexibility exercise such as hanging by the hands and a strength exercise such as a chin-up.
    • Flexibility is the state or quality of being flexible. Exercises include stretching the back
    • muscles in order to hang by the hands.
    • A stretching exercise could include the static stretch where isolated
    • muscles are lengthened slowly and held in a comfortable range for 15-20
    • seconds, during which the stretch is slowly deepened as the muscle is
    • elongated. Strength is the ability
    • of muscles to exert force; a necessary component for motor skills. Strength exercises involve hypertrophy
    • which is an enlargement of a muscle size due to the increase of cross sectional
    • size of fibers.
  81. Briefly describe two safe stretching exercises that can be

    done as part of the appropriate preparation for participation in 20 to 30

    minutes of volleyball. No credit will be given for responses that merely list

    or name exercises.
    • Two safe stretching exercises that can be used for
    • appropriate preparation in volleyball would be the dynamic stretch and the side
    • quadriceps stretch. A dynamic
    • stretch includes flexibility during sport-specific movements. It is similar to ballistic stretching
    • in that it utilizes speed of movement but avoids bouncing and includes
    • movements specific to the sport or movement pattern. The movements used help the athlete for a competition by
    • allowing to increase sport-specific flexibility. The second stretch is the side quadriceps stretch. First the person lies on their left
    • side with both legs straight. Then
    • place the left forearm flat on a floor or upper arm perpendicular to the
    • floor. After, place the left
    • forearm at a 45 degree angle to the torso. Flex the right knee with the heel of the right foot moving
    • toward the buttocks. Lastly, grasp the front ankle with the right hand and pull
    • towards the buttocks.
  82. Briefly describe one practice activity that could be used by

    a beginning learner, either independently or with assistance, to learn to

    perform a headstand, and a forward roll.

    Include in your description two examples of feedback or verbal cues that

    could help learners improve their performance.
    • There are two approaches for a suggested headstand. The first is to relate the Headstand to
    • the climb-up and second is to go directly into a headstand, using a kick-up to
    • achieve the inverted position.
    • With either method, maintaining the triangle position of the hands and
    • the head is essential. In the
    • final inverted position, the feet should be together, with legs straight and
    • toes pointed out. For the
    • headstand climb up move the feet slowly upward to the headstand position,
    • steadied by the spotter only. The
    • spotter stands directly in front of the performer. For the forward role, stand facing forward with the feet
    • apart, Squat and place hands on
    • the mat, shoulder with apart, with elbows against the inside of the
    • thighs. Tuck the chin to the chest
    • and make a rounded back. A push
    • off with the hands and feet provides the force with the roll. Carry the weight on the hands, with the
    • elbows bearing the weight of the thighs.
    • If the elbows are kept against the thighs and the weight is assumed
    • there, the force of the roll is transferred easily to the rounded back. Verbal clues would include, “tuck the
    • chin to the chest” for the forward roll
    • and “maintain a triangle position with for hand and head” for the
    • headstand.
  83. Briefly describe two motor development patterns that are

    prerequisites for efficient performance of the skill of fielding ground balls

    at second base in a softball game.
    • Proper softball play requires fine motor skills like hand
    • eye coordination, grasping and releasing. The large motor skills necessary are
    • running, stopping, catching and throwing. Before a second baseman can field the
    • ball, she will have had to experience with tracking and timing a rolling ball,
    • transferring the ball from glove to hand, and then throwing the ball with
    • proper speed, force and accuracy to the appropriate position to get the out.
    • Large motor skills will help her run to ball, stop, turn right or left
    • depending on where the out will occur most quickly and throw to appropriate
    • person.
  84. Develop a program for a fifth-grader that is lacking in upper body strength. Use either sit-ups or pull-ups in your program.

    Use F. I. T. T. (written out) in your response.
    • The F.I.T.T. principle is a basic philosophy of what is
    • necessary to gain a training effect from an exercise program. F.I.T.T. stands
    • for Frequency, Intensity, Type and Time. To develop upper body strength a fifth
    • grader should begin with low intensity exercises for a few minutes, 3 times a week. Chin ups can be used. The
    • student should hang form the bar and test how far she can pull herself up. Try
    • this 8 times. Rest for 2 minutes and repeat. As strength develops, shw should
    • be able to pull herself up further. She can then progress to 3 repetitions of
    • this exercise. Lifting light weights can also help develop upper body strength.
    • The student should begin with weights that are easy to lift 8 times. Curls,
    • where the student extends the arms forward and then flexes the arm toward the
    • body as well as bench press type exercises can increase strength. The bench
    • press has the student laying on a mat with the arms flexed above the shoulders.
    • The student then lifts light weights up toward the ceiling. As strength
    • increases, heavier weights can be used and the number of repetitions can be
    • increased.
  85. What role does strength training have in preparing children

    to develop skills in activities that require running?
    • Strength training is essential in preparing the ankles,
    • calves, quads, and hips for running.
    • These muscles and bones take a pounding during a running event. The muscles must be strong enough to
    • protect tendons, ligaments and bones. STRENGTH TRAINING INCREASES CIRCULATION AND BONE
    • GROWTH.
  86. A twelve-year-old child fell below the average range of a

    walk/run physical fitness test.

    Explain how you would go about setting up a program to assist this child

    with passing the test. Be sure to mention developmental strategies, frequency

    and duration.
    • After determining that the child has no physical conditions or injuries that have caused him to fall behind, then a structured program needs to be implemented. Since the test is a walk/run, begin by having the student practice walking daily. A flat track can be used, but variation in incline like small hills or steps can be used alternately to build muscle strength and cardiovascular endurance. Increase distance and speed no more than
    • 10% each time. As endurance and speed build, cut walking time and increase
    • running. Again, no more than 10% incremental steps each time. After a period of 3-4 weeks the student should have increase endurance, muscle strength and speed to the point of passing the physical fitness test. Motivation is just as
    • important as physical ability so finding what motivates the student can be
    • helpful. Having him practice with other will help him feel less singled out and
    • incorporating fun relays or games into the practice will raise interest levels
    • and insure a better outcome.
  87. Discuss the groups of instruments in a symphony -- strings,


    woodwind, and brass. How do the instruments within the group vary and

    • Most of the instruments in the string section lookalike. The main difference between them is their size. They are all
    • playing in very much the same manner as well. Strings can be plucked
    • (pizzicato) or made to sound by using the bow. There are 5 groups of players
    • in the string section. From smallest to biggest, they are the first and
    • second violins, violas, cellos, and double basses, as well as the harp and piano.
    • The string section is the backbone of a symphony orchestra, and that's why they
    • are nearest to the conductor.

    • The woodwind section is played with "wind" and the musicians blow
    • into the instruments. The different shape and materials of the woodwind instruments
    • help create their unique sounds. With the exception of the flute and
    • piccolo, all the other instruments in the woodwinds use a reed, which is a
    • narrow strip of cane that vibrates when a player blows on it. The
    • clarinet, bassoon, oboe, and saxophone all use reeds. Woodwind
    • tones carry very well, and they are located in the center of the orchestra.

    • The brass instruments are, of course, all made of brass. They are also
    • played with the air from the player like that of the woodwinds, with one
    • exception: brass players use their lips, instead of the reed, to make the
    • instrument sound. The brass family consists of the trumpet, French horn,
    • trombone, and the tuba. Because of the strong sound this section makes,
    • it is in the back of the orchestra.

    • The percussion section has the greatest variety of instruments. These are
    • instruments that make a sound when shaken, tapped, or banged. Some of
    • these instruments are untuned, like the gong, triangle, woodbock, and snare
    • drum. Other instruments are tuned, like the tympani, xylophone, and the
    • chimes. A percussionist may play many instruments during a concert.
    • The rhythmic and colorful sounds that are created carry out over the whole
    • symphony orchestra, as the percussion section is located in the back.

    • There are 5 important elements in painting - composition,
    • movement, unity
    • and balance, color and contrast, and mood. Describe each with reference to a specific painting that is
    • well known.

    • Georges Seurat was a neo impressionist who used pointillism
    • technique when creating his famous work “Sunday Afternoon at the Grand Island
    • of Jatte.” Pointillism was central to the composition of his painting. Instead
    • of broad flowing brush strokes, Seurat used small points of contrasting color
    • placed close to each other. To create unity and movement, every object in his
    • painting is touching at least one other object. Even though no movement is
    • shown, there is a feeling of moving together as one. The use of small points of
    • contrasting color gives the effect of more broad use of singular colors. The
    • viewer must walk close to the canvas to see that the colors are not solid but
    • small parts of a larger group of dots. His use of shading gave a sense of
    • boundaries between objects.

    • Identify the major figures of classical music and
    • characterize its elements.

    • Unlike the Baroque era, during the classical period, composers
    • started writing music that was easier to play and was intended for shopkeepers
    • and school teachers, not just kings and queens. Common people began to attend
    • concerts, and this meant that composers like Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven were
    • able to work for rich people who wanted to support the arts. The music of
    • this era was very melodic and pleasing to the ear.

    • Haydn was a pioneer in the development of the symphony and string
    • quartet. His music employed peasant melodies, with interesting
    • rhythm and dynamics. Mozart's music was very elegant, lyrical, and
    • simple. He thought music should never "offend the ear", hence
    • his beautiful, expressive melodies and style. Beethoven was very
    • instrumental in the keyboard instrument, which grew to be more expressive as it
    • evolved. His music offered more possibilities to the performer, and
    • pianos were developing a greater range with a bigger tone. His music was
    • much more dramatic, and acted as a bridge between the structured, simple
    • sounding Classical Era, and the new dramatic Romantic Era to follow
  88. Compare and contrast classical music with modern music.
    • Classical music was characterized by an obsession with
    • structural clarity, following strict musical rules, techniques and
    • theory. The music was simple, pleasing to the ear, tuneful and
    • pretty. Modern music replaced traditional chords with new
    • increasing harmonic complexities and dissonance. Disjunctive elements are
    • also prevalent factors in much of music of the 20th-century. Stravinsky
    • creates a sense of unbalance in his Firebird Suite by playing against the beat
    • and ignoring bar line divisions. Modern music also focuses on
    • timbre as a parameter for musical expression, using different instruments and
    • playing them in different ways. George Winston, a new age pianist,
    • changes the timbre of the piano by reaching inside and muting strings with his
    • hand to create a different feel to his music. An "atmosphere"
    • so to speak, in comparison with the melodic Classical style
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