1. root word: port
    to carry
  2. cardi
  3. derm
  4. cardiomyopathy
    any disease affecting the structure and fxn of the heart
  5. itis
  6. founder of pharmacy
    william proctor jr
  7. cardialgia
    heart pain
  8. algia
  9. cardiocentesis
    heart surgery procedure
  10. centesis
    surgical procedure
  11. cardiomegaly
    heart enlargement
  12. megaly
  13. ic/ous
    pertaining to
  14. tripsy
  15. esis/ism
    condition of
  16. plasty
    surgical repair
  17. dynia
  18. dys
  19. dysuria
    painful urination
  20. anuria
    absence of urine
  21. an
    absence of or without
  22. poly
  23. polyuria
    excessive urination
  24. sub
  25. subhepatic
    • sub-under
    • hepat- liver
    • ic - pertaining to

    thus pertaining to under the liver
  26. tachy
  27. brady
  28. peri
  29. intra
  30. parenteral
    pertaining to alongside of the intestine
  31. hemi
  32. plegia
  33. hemiplegia
    paralysis on one side of body
  34. polypharmacy
    many drugs
  35. ab
    from, away from
  36. ad
    toward, increase
  37. adduction
    movement of limb toward body
  38. ante
    before in front
  39. circum
  40. dia
  41. diagnosis
    knowledge thru testing
  42. ecto
  43. endo
  44. hypo
    under, below, less than normal
  45. juxta
    near, beside
  46. meso
  47. supra
    above, over
  48. purpur/o
  49. purpura
    pinpoint hemorrhages appearing as red/purple discolorations under skin
  50. cyan/o
  51. melan/o
  52. chlor/o
  53. erythr/o, eosin/o, rube
  54. alb, albin/p leuko
  55. cirrh/o, jaundo/o, xanth/o
  56. ambi
    both sides
  57. infra
  58. algia/dynia
  59. genic
  60. lysis
  61. oid
  62. pnea
  63. rrhea
  64. spasm
    involuntary contraction
  65. rhinorrhea
    discharge from nose
  66. dyspnea
    difficulty breathing
  67. cele
  68. ectasis
    expansion or dilation
  69. emia
    blood condition
  70. iasis
    formation or presence of
  71. malacia
  72. oma
  73. osis
    condition or increase
  74. phil
    attraction for
  75. plasia
  76. ptosis
    falling or downward displacement
  77. rrhagia
  78. rrhexis
  79. centesis
    puncture for aspiration
  80. amniocentesis
    surgical puncture of amniotic sac to get fluid for analysis
  81. ectomy
  82. desis
  83. pexy
  84. tomy
  85. stomy
    creation of an opening
  86. tripsy
  87. c/o
    complains of
  88. CC
    chief complaint
  89. SH
    social history
  90. FH
    family history
  91. PMH
    past medical history
  92. S/Sx
    signs and symptoms
  93. R/O
    rule out
  94. LFT
    liver fxn test
  95. DVT
    deep vein thrombosis
  96. CAD
    coronary artery disease
  97. PVCs
    premature ventricular contractions
  98. americans take OTC drugs most routinely for
  99. risks associated with OTC use
    • -pt has difficulty reading/selecting the right product
    • -lack of medical knowledge
    • -complex directions
    • -never reading the box/using expired meds
    • -side effects, drug interactions
  100. examples that can interact with OTC drugs
    • grapefruit juice - dextromethorphan (cough suppressant), omeprazole (prilosec-for acid reflux), (also dunno if you have to know but it also interactions with your quinolone antibiotics i.e. cipro, levaquin, oflaxacin)
    • alcohol (acetaminophen, antihistamines)
    • caffeine (excedrin, no-doz)
  101. Special populations that you need to consider how meds can work differently for them (2)
    infants and children- may metabolize drugs faster or slower, dosing needs to be weight based, formulation differences (tablets vs liquids)

    Elderly- may have kidney/liver problems that can affect metabolism), on multiple medications, may have more side effects
  102. Should kids with hemorrhoids or infants with acne be given an OTC recommendation or referred to a physician?
  103. Minimum age for kids that can safely use cough/cold medication?
    4 and up, under 4 not recommended
  104. What kind of meds cause the most of the complaints/calls to the poison control center (PCC)
    cough and cold meds (antihistamines, decongestants, antitussives, expectorants)
  105. Goals of OTC pharmacoptherapy
    appropriate product chosen, proper use and duration of Tx, response to therapy, monitor for allergies, ADR (adverse drug reactions), drug interactions
  106. name a few things for a patient assessment (hint, involves getting a brief pt history (hx))
    • Brief pt Hx
    • - who is the patient
    • -signs and symptoms
    • -duration of current condition
    • -allergies to medications
    • -existing medical conditions (diabetes, hypertension, etc)
    • -current medication hx (rx and otc)
    • -past and current experience/treatments
    • -pt risk factors (age, health condition)
  107. What OTC product(s) do teens abuse?
    • cough/cold meds: DM (dextromethorphan), decongestants, antihistamines
    • also diet supplements/stimulants, laxatives,
  108. Practice of pharmacy governed by? and which rule do you follow if the two are a bit different?
    Federal and state laws. Always follow the stricter law
  109. What is criminal law?
    • government vs private party
    • act or violation of a duty owed to society, prosecuted by the government
  110. What is civil law
    • private party vs private party
    • concerns private rights and parties (wtf does that mean??)
    • civil cases an individual brings an action against someone else
  111. What does the FDA regulate?
    • primarily regulates drug manufacturing and regulates clinical trials.
    • also regulates product labeling and advertising, whether or not an med is Rx or OTC, and regulates dietary supplements
  112. What does the DEA do regarding pharmacy practice
    • primarily regulates dispensing and sales of controlled substances
    • licenses prescribers to write rx for controls
    • licenses pharmacies to dispense controls
  113. CMS (centers for medicare and medicaid services)
    • medicare for elderly- part D -federal program to pay for Rx drugs through private prescription drug providers.
    • Medicaid- for indigents (means needy people)

    both use formularies, medicaid is funded by federal and state
  114. Durham-Humphrey Act
    defines which drugs require an Rx and include on the rx label "caution federal law prohibits dispensing without a prescription", bottles are labeled Rx only
  115. How are Rx drugs classified (distinguished from OTC drugs)?
    Rx drugs are unsafe for use except under supervision of a prescriber due to toxicity and method of use (may cause harm without supervision), and collateral measures necessary for use
  116. what does the poison prevention packaging act do?
    requires child resistant containers on most OTC and Rx drugs
  117. what is the Illinois dept of financial and professional regulation (IDFPR) responsible for?
    licensing RPhs and techs
  118. what is the primary mission and main purpose of the IL state board of pharmacy?
    • primary mission- protect public
    • main purpose- to advise IDFPR
  119. Why does pharmacy need to be regulated?
    to protect the public, increase health care quality, prevent drug diversion and abuse
  120. How many CE hours do RPhs need to renew their license in IL?
    30 credit hours every 2 years
  121. Why is pharmacy regulated in IL?
    To protect the health and safety of the public, and to only allow qualified people to practice pharmacy in IL, including techs
  122. What does Practice of Pharmacy include? (scope of practice)
    • interpretation and assisting in monitorying, evaluating, and implementing Rx drug orders
    • dispense rx, administer rx, DUR (Drug utilization review), patient counseling, MTM, compounding
  123. How long is a non controlled substance good for?
    • 12 months from date it is written unless otherwise specified by MD, or it's accutane (good for 7 days)
    • refills are allowed and good for 12 months (none on accutane) unless otherwise specified by physician
  124. What does prescription have to include?
    pt name, address for controlled substances and syringes), date written, name and strength of drug, qty, directions for use, prescriber's full name/address/signature, DEA for controlled substances
  125. what should be printed on an rx label on an rx vial?
    name and address of pharmacy, name/initials of RPh and tech, date rx is filled, name of pt, rx number, directions for use, name of drug, strength, and qty, last name of MD
  126. What can patient counseling include?
    • pt med hx, allergies, health conditions
    • help pt understand rx use
    • how to use it
    • major adverse side effects
    • potential food -drug interactions
    • the need to be compliant with therapy!
  127. Can pharm students or techs dispense/deliver rx, or counsel a pt if RPh not physically present and supervising?
  128. Schedule I controlled substance: can it be dispensed?
    no, only for research. High potential for abuse, no accepted medical use and MAY NOT BE PRESCRIBED.

    i.e. heroin, marijuana, LSD
  129. schedule II- can it be prescribed? how long is a written rx good for? how is it stored in a pharmacy? any refills allowed? level of abuse?
    • Yes, rx is good for 90 days from date it is written, RPh must sign and date face of rx when filling
    • must be stored in a locked cabinet
    • NO refills
    • high potential for abuse/dependency
  130. Schedule III: abuse level? how long is written Rx good for? any refills?
    moderate/low dependence physically, high psychologically, rx good for 6 months from date written, refills up to 5 times in 6 months, rx must be signed and dated by RPh after filling
  131. schedule IV: potential for abuse? How long is written rx good for? any refills?
    low potential relative to schedule II, good for 6 months, refills up to 5 times in six months (from the day it is written!), RPh must sign and date rx after filling
  132. schedule V: abuse potential? how long is written rx good for? refills?
    low potential compared to IV, good for 6 months from date written, refill up to 5 times in 6 months, RPh needs to sign and date rx after fillin
  133. What does MD need to write for a controlled substance?
    Needs authorization from state, be registered with DEA, DEA # must be printed on each rx written for controlled substance
  134. Who can write for controlled substances in IL?
    MD, DO, DVM (vet), DDS, DPM (podiatrist), PA C3-5 with MD consent), APN (advanced practice nurse) C3-5 with MD consent, and therapeutically cert optometrists within limits
  135. A valid rx for C-II must have what written on the rx? (several things)
    dated and signed by MD, NO preprinted rx's, needs full name and address of pt, drug name, strength, dosage form, and qty (written and numeric), name/address/DEA of MD- must call MD if DEA missing

    RPh must sign and date
  136. can you fill C-II from out of state?
  137. Can verbal or faxed rx's be sent for C-IIs?
    NO, unless emergency, but hard copy must be sent to pharmacy within 7 days
  138. can controls C3-5 be preprinted?
  139. can C3-5 be faxed or verbal?
  140. What caution label has to be on C2-5's on rx vial label?
    Caution: federal law prohibits transfer of this drug to any person other than the patient for whom it was prescribed
  141. What info is transmitted for PMP (prescription monitoring program)?
    dispenser (pharmacy) DEA, recipient's name and address, NDC, qty, date filled, date written, MD DEA, Pt ID/Gender/DOB
  142. who can access prescription info library from PMP?
    MD, dispenser
  143. How many times can non controlleds be transfered?
    can only transfer if it's a refill, must be between 2 RPhs or real time data transfer online, can transfer until all refills are used
  144. how many times can C3-5 be transfered?
    only once for refill unless it's from the same chain. transfer must be down between two RPhs or real time online data transfer
  145. What does OBRA '90 require?
    • DUR- screen rx's before dispensing, counseling pt, document relevant info
    • RPh MUST counsel or make offer to counsel on all new rx's
  146. What does prospective DUR screen for?
    therapeutic duplication, drug-drug interactions, drug-drug contraindications, drug-food interactiosn
  147. what is the limits on PSE/EPH? just the strictest
    3.6 g per day, max 7.5 g per month
  148. Who can immunize? min age of person you can immunize?
    RPh or intern, need certification by ACPE and CPR cert. Pt needs to be 14 and up
  149. licensure req's for RPh
    graduated from accredited school, pass boards, 21 and over, no felonies
  150. as a licensed RPh what are you held liable for personally?
    • legal liability- can be prosecuted for misconduct
    • negligence- failing to do something that should or must be done
    • scope of practice- taking rx's and filling that are not part of the prescriber's scope of practice
  151. When rx is entered to computer what does it check for?
    correct dose, drug allergies, drug drug interactions, drug disease interactions, deplicate therapy
  152. What are some examples of things written on auxiliary labels?
    • special warnings -take on empty stomach
    • adverse effect warnings- may cause drowsiness
    • drug interaction warnings
    • route of administration (eye, ear, or mouth? or up the ass)
  153. azepam stem are what class of rxs?
  154. -caine stem are what class of rxs?
    local anesthetics
  155. cillin-stem are what class of rxs?
    penicillin antibiotics (amoxacillin, dicloxacillin, ampicillin)
  156. -oxacine stem are what class of rxs?
    quinolone antibiotics, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacine
  157. pril stem are what class of rxs?
    ACE inhibitors, lisinopril etc
  158. statin stem are what class of rxs?
    cholesterol lowering agents (pravastatin, simvastatin)
  159. sartan stem are what class of rxs?
    ARBs (angiotensin II receptor antagonists) diovan (valsartan) losartan (cozaar)
  160. sulfa stem are what class of rxs?
    sulfonamide antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole)
  161. drugs of the same class are similar how?
    same mechanism of action, indication, side effects, drug interactions, counseling points
  162. antiemetics are used for?
    preventing nausea and vomiting
  163. mimentic is agonist or antagonist?
    agonist- mimics actions of certain NTs
  164. lytics -agonist or antagonist?
    antagonist-blocks NT's like acetyl choline and epinephrine to block nerve transmission
  165. macrolides are what kind of antibiotics?
    erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin (your mycins)
  166. how do statins work to lower cholesterol? (I.e. what enzyme does it block)
    HMG-CoA reducatase
  167. suffix for beta blockers
    olol (atenolol)
  168. suffic for ACE inhibitors
    april (benzapril, enalapril)
  169. ARB suffix?
    artans (losartan)
  170. name 5 classes of rx's used to treat hypertension
    diuretics (HCTZ, furosemide), Beta Blockers (BB) (metoprolol, atenolol), ACE inhibitors (benzapril), ARBs (losartan), and calcium channel blockers (CCB)
  171. define pt adherence
    taking meds, taking them as prescribed
  172. define pt persistence
    success at following medication therapy through duration
  173. why is adherence better than compliance?
    adherence pt is active, empowered, pt feels supported
  174. what is the % that avg of pt's overall adherence to medications?
  175. what is % is considered good med adherence?
    80% for maintenance meds, 90% for HIV meds
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