1. Nutrient
    Foods that contain elements necessary for body function, including water, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals
  2. Nutrient density
    Proportion of essential nutrients to the number of calories of a specific food
  3. Carbohydrates
    • 4 kcal
    • Dietary classification of food such as sugars, starches, cellulose, and gum
  4. Amino acid
    • Building blocks that construct proteins
    • The end products of protein digestion
  5. Indespensible amino acid
    the body does not synthesize
  6. Dispensible amino acids
    the body synthesizes
  7. Fat
    • 9 kcal
    • triglycerides
    • fatty acids
  8. Vitamins
    Organic compounds essential in small quantities for normal physiological and metabolic functioning of the body
  9. Fat soluble vitamins
    • A
    • D
    • E
    • K
  10. Water soluble vitamins
    • C
    • B complex
  11. Minerals
    Inorganic elements essential to the body because of their role as catalysts in biochemical reactions
  12. Macrominerals
    Minerals classified as having a daily requirement of 100 mg or more
  13. trace mineral
    • Minerals when less than 100 mg is needed daily
    • Microminerals
  14. Enzyme
    Proteins produced by living cells that catalyze chemical reactions in organic matter
  15. Chyme
    Viscous, semifluid contents of the stomach present during digestion of a meal that eventually pass into the intestines
  16. 2 hormones small intestines secrete
    • Secretin
    • Cholecystokinin (CCK)
  17. anabolism
    conversion of simple substances into more complex compounds of living matter
  18. Catabolism
    The breaksown of biochemical substances into simplee substances
  19. glycogenesis
    Anabolism of glucose into glycogen for storage
  20. Glycogenolysis
    Catabolism of glycogen into glucose, carbon dioxide, and water
  21. gluconeogenesis
    Formation of glucose or glycogen from substances that are not carbohydrates, such as proteins or lipids
  22. Daily values
    Set of dietary standards for eight nutrients and food categories
  23. Body Mass Index (BMI)
    • 18-24.9 normal
    • 25-30 overweight
    • <30 obeses
  24. Enteral Nutrition
    nutrients given in GI tract
  25. Parenteral nutrition
    nutrition support given through IV
  26. enteral tube feeding
    • Nasogastric
    • Nasointestinal
    • PEG
    • PEJ
    • Jejunostomy
    • Gastrostomy
Card Set
chapter 44