1. mandatory ethics
    things you must do, act in compliance with minimum standards
  2. aspirational ethics
    highest standards of thinking and conduct. (e.g., pro bono services)
  3. 6 moral principles in ethics:
    • 1. Autonomy: the promotion of self-determination, or the freedom of clients to choose their own direction. (e.g., Clients right to withdraw from services)
    • 2. Nonmaleficence: avoiding doing harm, including refraining from actions that risk hurting clients. (e.g., dual and multiple relationships)
    • 3.Beneficence: Promoting good for others.
    • 4. Justice: To be fair by giving equally to others; providing equal treatment for all.
    • 5. Fidelity: To make and keep promises
    • 6. Veracity; Truthfulness; represent yourself to the public in a truthful manner. (e.g., not practicing beyond your competence)
  4. What are the steps in making ethical decisions?
    • 1.Identify the problem/dilemna
    • 2. Identify potential issues involved
    • 3. Review relevant ethics involved
    • 4. Know the applicable laws and regulations
    • 5. Obtain consultation
    • 6. Consider possible and probable courses of action
    • 7. Evaluate the consequences of various decisions
    • 8. Decide the best course of action.
  5. Tranference
    The process whereby clients project onto their therapists past feelings or attitudes they had toward significant people in their lives; the "unreal" relationship in therapy.
  6. countertransference
    Projections by therapists that distort the way they perceive and react to a client.
  7. experiential learning
    counselors seeking therapy themselves
  8. What are the biggest sources of stress for counselors?
    • 1. suicidal statements
    • 2. severely depressed clients
    • 3. lack of motivation by clients
    • 4. clients premature termination
    • 5. aggression and hostility by clients
  9. informed consent
    the right of clients to be informed about their therapy and to make autonomous decisions pertaining to it
  10. informed consent document
    used to define boundaries and clarify the nature of the therapeutic relationship
  11. Legal aspects of informed consent
    • Capacity: client hasthe ability to make rational decisions
    • Comprehension of information: therapists must give clients information in a clear way and check to see that they understand it.
    • Voluntariness: the person giving consent is acting freely in the decision-making process and is legally and psychologically able (competent) to give consent.
  12. Tarasoff Case
    • Duty to warn of harm to self or others
    • Duty to protect
    • Client informs therapist that he is going to harm his girlfriend
    • Therapist calls the campus police and sent a formal letter
    • Client kills his girlfriend
    • family sues b/c therapist didn't do enough to make sure clients girlfriend was safe
  13. Bradley Case
    • duty not to negligently release dangerous client
    • client is in an inpatient unit
    • threatened earlier to kill his wife and her lover
    • was given an unrestricted pass to visit his children living with his life
    • kills his wife and her lover
  14. Jablonski Case
    • duty to commit a dangerous individual
    • Kembel brings boyfriend to be evaluated twice
    • boyfriend is evaluated and released twice
    • boyfriend kills Kembel
    • negligent because failed to obtain prior medical history
  15. Hedlund Case
    • extends duty to warn to anyone who might be near the intended victim and who might also be in danger
    • couple in counseling and man reports he is going to hurt his wife in front of his child
    • child must be warned but was not
  16. Jaffee Case
    • communications between licensed psychotherapists and their clients are privelaged and therefore protected from forced disclosure in cases arising under federal law
    • police shot and killed a suspect
    • police was seeing a therapist and suspects family tried to get records from the therapist
    • court sided with the therapist that the records were privelaged information
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