A & P Respiratory System

  1. The respiratory system is divided into ___ tracts, what are they
    • 2
    • Upper respiratory
    • Lower respiratory
  2. Upper respiratory tract is located where?
    Outside the thorax
  3. Upper respiratory tract consist of?
    • Nose
    • Pharynx(throat)
    • Larynx(voice box)
  4. Lower respiratory tract is where?
    In the thorax
  5. Lower respiratory tract consists of?
    • Trachea
    • bronchi
    • lungs
  6. What are associated structures of the respiratory tract?
    • They are required for respiration, but not specifically part of the tract.
    • Mouth
    • rib cage
    • diaphram
  7. pulmonary ventilation
  8. inspiration
  9. Expiration
  10. nostrils
    external nares
  11. internal nares open into the ______?
    nasal vestibules
  12. nasal vestibules
  13. Nasal vestibules are divided by______?
    Nasal septum
  14. Where is nasal hair located?
    The proximal portion of the nasal septum
  15. nasal hair
  16. The lateral wall of the vestibule is folded into 3 ridges called?
  17. Conchae cause?
  18. turbulence aids in the mucous membranes of the nose to?
    • Clean the air
    • Warm
    • Moisten
    • Enhance the ability of smell
  19. What is just below the cricoid cartilage?
  20. sinuses that communicate with the nasal cavity?
    • maxillary
    • frontal
    • sphenoidal
    • ethmoidal
  21. What is found in the roof of the nasal cavity?
    The olfactory region
  22. Pharynx
  23. pharynx is divided into?
    • Nasopharynx
    • oropharynx
    • laringopharynx
  24. nasopharynx
    • posterior to the nasal vestibule.
    • extends the length of the soft palate
  25. oropharynx
    from the palate to the hyoid bone
  26. laryngopharynx
    • hyoid bone to the cricoid cartilage.
    • includes the larynx
  27. larynx
    voice box
  28. Larynx is composed of?
    • 4 hyaline cartilages:
    • Thyroid
    • cricoid
    • epiglottic
    • arytenoid
  29. thyroid cartilage
    • adam's apple
    • largest
    • contains vocal cords and is open in the back
  30. cricoid cartilage
    • below the thyroid
    • narrower anteriorly than posteriorly
  31. epiglottic cartilage
    flap like that closes the tracheal opening during swallowing
  32. arytenoid cartilage
    2 triangular pieces of hyaline cartilage posterior to the thyroid cartilage
  33. How many vocal cords?
  34. the 2 vocal cords?
    • True- mucous membrane strands
    • False- membraneous wings
  35. glottis
    opening to trachea
  36. voice
  37. phonation involves the use of?
    Vocal cords, pharynx, nasal cavity, nasal sinuses, tongue, teeth, & lips
  38. trachea
  39. trachea is where?
    anterior to the esophagus
  40. Trachea is composed of?
    horse shoe shaped rings that open dorsally
  41. What closes the gap in the horse shoe of the trachea
    Elastic and smooth muscle tissue
  42. Trachea is lined with
    • ciliated columnar- motion directed upward and outward
    • goblet (mucous) cells
  43. The bifurcation of the trachea?
  44. Primary bronchi
    Main stem
  45. Food usually get trapped where?
    right bronchus- because it is larger and less angled than the left.
  46. The ____extends beneath and through the Aortic arch?
    Left primary bronchus
  47. Aspirated food can be removed by the?
    Heimlich Maneuver
  48. Pimary bronchi branch into_____which branch into_____then into______
    • Secondary bronchi
    • Tertiary bronchi
    • Bronchioles
  49. AT the ____level the cartilage rings are replaced by smooth muscle?
    bronchiole level
  50. bronchiole branch into
    terminal bronchioles
  51. What does the repiratory system look like
    a tree
  52. What are the 2 cone shaped organs that fill the pleural portions of the thoracic cavity?
  53. lungs are separated by
  54. 2 layers of the pleural membrane
    • outermost- parietal layer
    • Innermost- Visceral
  55. What are the two layers of the pleural membrane separated by
    A paper thin pleural cavity which contains pleural fluid
  56. Inflamation of the Pleural cavity
  57. Apex of the lung
  58. cupula extends where?
    2cm above the clavicle
  59. Base of lung rests on
  60. Hilus
    opening in the mediastinum for the bronchi, blood and lymph vessels and nerves
  61. left lung is slightly___than the right? Why?
    • Smaller
    • Heart
  62. Left lung has __lobes?
    • 2
    • 3
  63. lobes of the lungs
    • Superior
    • middle
    • inferior

    (only the right has the middle)
  64. Space in lung that the heart occupies?
    Cardiac notch
  65. Each lobe of the lung is divided into__1__?
    Inside each__1__ are numerous __2__
    • 1-Lobule
    • 2-Alveolar sacs
  66. Cul-de-sac
  67. What forms the terminus of air in the lungs?
  68. ___produces surfactant
  69. Surfactant
    substance that reduces surface tension and prevent the alveoli from sticking together.
  70. Alveoli are supplied with?
    • Arteries,
    • Veins,
    • and lymph
  71. Phagocytic cells in alveoli?
    Alveolar macraphages (dust cells)
  72. ___determines the degree to which o2 binds to hemoglobin
  73. Hemoglobin saturation of 100% is
    4 O2 molecules
  74. Molecular attraction
  75. affinity is affected by
    • pressure
    • ph
    • Temperature
  76. diffusion moves from __concentration, to __concentration
    • High
    • Low
  77. pulmonary (external) respiration
    partial pressure of O2 is higher than that of co2 and the o2 rapidly diffuses into the Heme portion of the blood. (Haldane effect)
  78. Tissue (internal) respiration
    partial pressure of CO2 is higher than that of O2 and the CO2 rapidly diffuses into the globin (Bohr effect)
  79. oxygen dissociation curve
    demonstrates the transition of partial pressure of oxygen levels between tissues, veins, and arteries at sea level.
  80. When the partial pressure of o2 is high
    hemoglobin binds with large amounts of o2 and is almost fully saturated
  81. pO2 is between 60-100mm hg
    90% saturated with O2
  82. pO2 is 40 mm hg
    75% saturated with O2
  83. pO2 is 20 mm hg
    35% saturation of O2
  84. The amount of O2 released from the body varies with?
    Body temp
  85. Hyperthermia
    • Fever, bodies metabolic activity intensifies 7% for each degree celsius of temp increase
    • Stimulates the release of O2 from hemoglobin
  86. Hypothermia
    • Cold, causes metabolic slowdown
    • more O2 remains bound to hemoglobin
  87. Inhale (pressure gradient)
    • Less than that of atmosphere
    • Greater ""
  88. boyles law
    volume of gas varies inversly with pressure
  89. Diaphram
    skeletal muscle that contracts when we breath in causing the thoracic cavity to increase
  90. External intercostals
    contract pulling the thorax upward and sternum outward, help further increase the thoracic volume
  91. Passive expiration-
    Does not involve muscle contraction
  92. Active expiration
    • deliberate expulsion of air from lungs
    • involves: internal intercostals and abdominal muscles
  93. respiration per minute?
  94. baroreceptors
    monitor partial pressure of gas
  95. chemoreceptors
    sensitive to changes in hydrogen ions, CO2, and O2 concentrations

    (heart, great veins, arteries)
  96. Spirometer(spirograph)
    machine used for measuring volume of the lungs
  97. spirogram
    record from spirograph
  98. amount of air that passes in and out of each lung in a normal respiration?
    Tidal volume
  99. Additional air that can be inspired above the tidal volume?
    Additional air that can be expired below the tidal volume
    • inspiratory reserve volume
    • expiratory reserve volume
  100. Amount of air always in the lungs
    residual volume
  101. Amount of air that a person can pull into the lungs beyond that in the lungs at the beginning of the breath?
    (tidal + inspiratory reserve)
    Inspiratory capacity
  102. sum of the residual volume plus expiratory reserve
    functional residual capacity
  103. inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, and expiratory reserve volume
    Vital capacity
  104. all volumes of lung capacity
    Total lung capacity
  105. Ease with which the lungs thoracic wall can be expanded?
  106. Smokers cough
    Caused by defoliation of the cilia in the respiratory tree
  107. Emphysema (COPD)
    gradual destruction of the alveolar tissue and replacement with scar tissue

    Decreases compliance
  108. Cancer that affects the respirator tree is almost always___related
  109. inflamation of the bronchial tubes
  110. infection and the filling of alveoli with fluids
  111. bacterial infection of the pleurae and lungs produced by a micobacterium
  112. lack of surfactant in a new borns lung
    Respiratory distress syndrome of a new born
  113. a clot carried to the lungs that blocks off circulation
    pulmonary embolism
Card Set
A & P Respiratory System