Who has the responsibility for the worship of the congregation?
- 1- The session has primary responsibility, but
- 2 - "The minister as pastor has certain responsibilities which are not subject to the authority of the session" (W-1.4005)
What provisions of worship are the responsibility of session?
- The session shall make provisions for the regular
- 1- preaching of the Word,
- 2- celebration of the Sacraments,
- 3- Corporate prayer
- 4- offering of praise to God in song
- "to oversee and approve all public worship in the life of the particular church with the exception of those responsibilities delegated to the pastor alone, and to dtermine occasions, days, times, and places for worship" (W-1.4004)
What provisions of worship are the responsiblity of session (Part 2)?
- The session is responsible
- 1- for the space where worship is conducted, including its arrangement and furnishings
- 2- for the use of special appointments such as flowers, candles, banners, paraments, and other objects of art
- 3- for the overall program of music and other arts in the church
- 4- for those who lead worship through music, drama, dance, and other arts (W-1.4004)
What responsibilities pertaining to worship are reserved to the minister as pastor?
- 1- The selection of Scripture lessons to be read (W-1.4005, W-2.2001)
- 2- The preparation and preaching of the sermon or exposition of the Word (W-1.4005...W-3.3401)
- 3- The prayers offered on behalf of the people and those prepared for the use of the people in worship (W-2.2001)
- 4- The music to be sung (W-1.4005)
- 5- The use of drama, dance, and other art forms (W-1.4005)
Who determines "the sequence and proportion of the elements of worship"?
The pastor "with the concurrence of session." (W-1.4006)
Who selects "hymnals, song books, service books, Bibles, and other materials for use of the congregation in public worship"?
"The session with the concurrence of the pastor in consultation with musicians and educators available to session" (W-1.4006)
What is a sermon?
"It is a proclamation of Scripture in the conviction that through the Holy Spirit Jesus Christ is present to the gathered people, offering grace and calling for obedience." (W-2.2007)
Is proclamation limited to preaching the sermon?
No. Song, "drama, dance, poetry and pageant, indeed, most other human art forms are also expressions through which the people of God have proclaimed and responded to the Word." (W-2.2008)
Must the Apostles' Creed or Nicene Creed be used in the Lord's Day Service?
Whenever a baptism is administered, the Apostles' Creed "shall" be used (W-3.3603, W-2.2009), and in celebrating the Lord's Supper "the creeds of the universal church should be used." (W-2.2009)
Who is to administer the Lord's Supper?
- 1- Ordinarily a minister (G-6.0202, W-2.4012); but, under specific circumstances,
- 2- an elder authorized by the presbytery (G-6.0304...), or
- 3- a commissioned lay pastor commissioned by the presbytery (G-11.0103)
May an inquirer or candidate for ordination to the Ministry of the Word and Sacrament administer the Sacraments?
"Under no circumstances." (G-14.0307) Unless in capacity as previously ordained elder under provisions noted in previous question.
Must the celebration of the Lord's Supper "be preceded by the reading and the proclamation of the Word"?
Yes (W-2.4008), but not necessarily a sermon (W-2.2008, 2-3.3101, W-3.3401).
Where should the Words of Institution occur in the liturgy?
- They are to occur in one of three possible places:
- 1- as part of the Invitation to the Table,
- 2- in the Prayer of Thanksgiving, or
- 3- at the Fraction and Presentation of the Cup. (W-3.3612, 4, 5)
What text of the Words of Institution is to be used?
If the words are said at the Fraction (and Presentation of the Cup), then the text from I Cor. 11:23-25 "shall be used" (W-3.3614-5). If the Words are said as part of the Invitation or Prayer of Thanksgiving, then either I Cor. 11:23-25 "or Gospel parallels" are to be used. (W-3.3612)
What are the principal parts of the Prayer of Thanksgiving?
- 1- Thanksgiving to God (for creation and providence, covenant history, and for seasonal blessings, with an acclamation of praise;
- 2- Remembering God's acts of salvation in Jesus Christ (his birth, life, death, resurrection, and promise of coming, and institution of the Supper-if not otherwise spoken- together with an acclamation of faith;
- 3- Calling upon the Holy Spirit to draw the people into the presence of the risen Christ so that they may be fed, may be joined in the communion of saints to all God's people and to the risen Christ, and may be sent to serve as faithful disciples;
- 4- an ascription of praise;
- 5- The Lord's Prayer (W-3.3613)
- [remember: pointer finger points to God in Thanksgiving; middle finger remembers salvation; ring finger joins HS; pinky="p" for promise; thumb=thumbs up, we're done and can say the Lord's Prayer)
Between the Prayer of Thanksgiving and the Distribution, what occurs?
- 1- The Fraction or Breaking of the Bread (W-3.3614)
- 2- The Presentation of the Cup (W-3.3615)
Who is to receive communion?
"All baptized persons, whether children or adults, even though they have made no profession of their faith in Christ, are entitled to participation in the Lord's Supper..." (G-5.0301; W-2.4006, cf. W-2.4011).
Can non-baptized persons receive communion?
No, unless the provision that, "Confessing members of other Christian churches may participate in the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper" (G-5.0301) is taken to include "churches" that either do not celebrate the sacraments or require baptism for membership (e.g. the Society Friends and the Salvation Army)
Who distributes the Supper?
- 1- either ordained officers (ministers, elders, or deacons), or
- 2- "other church members on invitation of the session or authorizing governing body." (W-3.3616)
Does the Directory specify Words of Administration?
Is there a post-communion prayer in the Lord's Day Service?
Yes, according to the Directory. (W-3.3618)
Does the Directory specify any eucharistic vestments?
Must there be an act of confession of sin before one receives the Lord's Supper?
The Directory envisions congregational prayer "of confession of the reality of sin in personal and common life" either before the scripture lessons (W-3.3301), or before the liturgy of the Lord's Supper as part of the prayers of the church. (W-3.3506)
When is the sign of peace exchanged?
- The Directory suggests 3 possibilities:
- 1- After the confession of sin,
- 2- After the offertory,
- 3- After the concluding blessing.
- "...all things should be done decently and in order."
Who is to administer baptism?
- 1- A minister (W-2.3011), ordinarily serving as pastor (G-6.0202)
- 2- Ministers who are serving in some capacity other than pastor (e.g., chaplains, etc.), may administer baptism if authorized by the appropriate "governing body" (W-2.3011)
Who authorizes the service of baptism to take place?
The session (G-10.0102, W-2.3011)
Who admits persons to be baptized?
The session (G-5.0301, W-2.3006, W-2.3014)
Who may present children for baptism?
"...ordinarily the parent(s) or one(s) rightly exercising parental responsibility shall be an active member of the congregation" (W-2.3014). The session may approve requests to baptize children of "Confessing members of other Christian churches" (G-5.0301), or of "a Christian parent who is an active member of another congregation" (W-2.3014). In the latter case, approval by the session then requires that "it shall consult with the governing body of the other congregation and shall notify them when the Sacrament has been administered" (W-2.3014)
Does the PC(USA) recognize baptisms administered by other Christian churches?
Yes. "The PC(USA) recognizes all baptisms with water in the name of the Faother, of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit administered by other Christian churches" (W-2.3010).
May baptism be received more than once?
No (W-2.3007, W-2.3009)
When and where is baptism celebrated?
- 1- Ordinarily "in a service of public worship."
- 2- "Extraordinary circumstances may call for the administration of Baptism apart from the worship of the whole congregation. In such cases care should be taken that
- 1- the congregation be represented by one or more members of the session;
- 2- a proper understanding of the meaning of the Sacrament be offered by the minister;
- 3- the session be consulted when possible; and
- 4- the Baptism be reported by the officating minister and recorded by the session" (W-2.301)
Who serves as "sponsors" of the baptized?
- 1- The congregation as a whole
- 2- certain members of the congregation appointed by the session
- 3- "Sponsor(s) may be appointed by the session in concultation with those desiring Baptism for themselves or for their children and given the specific role of nurturing the baptized person" (W-2.3013)
What is the mode of administering the water?
"...pouring, sprinkling, or immersion. By whatever mode, the water should be applied visibly and generously" (W-3.3603)
What is the baptismal formul?
"_______, I baptized you in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit" (W-3.3606, W-2.3010).
In addition to the use of water and the Trinitarian formula, what other liturgical actions are mandated?
- 1- The rite "shall include statements concerning the biblical meaning of Baptism, the responsibility assumed by those desiring Baptism for themselves or their children, and the nurture to be undertaken by the church"
- 2- "Those desiring the Sacrament of Baptism for their children or for themselves shall make vows that
- a- profess their faith in Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior,
- b- renounce evil and affirm their reliance on God's grace, and
- c- declare their intention to participate actively and responsibly in the worship andmission of the church"
- 3- "The congregation shall
- a- profess its faith using the Apostles' Creed,
- b- voice its support of those baptized, and
- c- express its willingess to take responsibility for the nurture of those baptized
- 4- "Declaration shall be made of the newly baptized person's membership in the church of Jesus Christ" (W-3.3603, 8)
May any other actions be included in the rite of baptism?
Yes. "Other actions that are rooted deeply in the history of Baptism such as laying on of hands in blessing, the praying for the anointing of the Holy Spirit, anointing with oil, and the presentation of the newly baptized may also be included. When such actions are introduced, they should be explained carefully in order to avoid misinterpretation and misunderstanding" (W-3.3607)
Does the Directory provide for "conditional" baptism?
Does the Directory provide for "emergency" baptism?
Only in the sense of "extraordinary circumstances" noted above (W-2.3011), and in those circumstances, only a mnister is to baptize.
Does baptism grant admission to "active membership"?
Not as such. Acitve membership is contingent, not only upon baptism, but upon profession of faith in Christ and voluntary submission to PC(USA) discipline (G-5.0202)
What other responsibilities regarding baptism revolve upon the session?
- 1- "...encouraging parents to present their children for baptism, reminding them that children of believers are to be baptized without undue haste, but without undue delay" (W-2.3012)
- 2- instructing and examining non-baptized persons who seek baptism on confession of faith (W-2.3012)
- 3- instructing all baptized in "the meaning of Baptism, of the Lord's Super, and of their interrelation" (W-2.3012)
- 4- surrounding the baptized with "Christian encouragement and support" (W-2.3012), enrolling the baptized as baptized members (W-2.3012, G-5.0201), maintaining a registry of Infant and Adult Baptisms (G-10.0302), and providing for the "development and supervision of the educational program of the church" (W-6.2004).
Whose names appear on the Baptized Members Roll?
"...the names of those persons baptized in the particular church who have not made a profession of faith in Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior, and children of active members or of ministers of the Word and Sacrament related to the particular church, when such children have been baptized elsewhere" (G-10.0301)
What data is to be included in the Register of Infant Baptisms?
"...name, parents' names, and date of birth of those being baptized and the names of persons presenting the children for baptism" (G-10.0302)
What data is to be included in the Register of Adult Baptisms?
"...name, parents' names, and the date of birth of those being baptized" (G-10.0302)
A Sacrament is:
- 1- a sign-Act instituted by Christ which
- 2- seals a promise in our hearts and
- 3- strengthens our sense of assurance, gratitude, faith and commitment and
- 4- is accomplished by the Holy Spirit
References - Sacrament
Scots 3.21; Heidelberg 4.065 (confirms our faith), 2d Helvetic 5.169 (amazing 10 point definition), 5.172 (like seals appended to letters), 5.180 (sign and thing signified are united mystically), West. Conf. at 6.149 (signs and seals to represent Christ and his benefits), 6.151 (work of the Spirit), 7.092 (Q. 92 of Shorter Catechism is a great quote).
References - Baptism
- Participation in Christ’s death and resurrection (Rom. 6:3, 5.185);
- Washed by pure water of baptism (Heb. 10:22, 4.069),
- Gift of the Holy Spirit (Mark 1;4-11, 5.187, 9.51)
- Incorporated into the Body of Christ (Eph. 4:4-6, 9.51),
- Sign of the kingdom (royal priesthood, 1 Peter 2:9, 5.169
- Mnemonic:Polly Was Going In Style
Reference - Lord's Supper
- Notice the names we give this sacrament. Eucharist, Lord’s supper, Communion, Breaking Bread, suggest various ways of understanding its significance,
- Mnemonic:Tom Is a Changed Man
- Thanksgiving (Eucharist is supreme expression of Christian thanksgiving 4.080, W-5.0200)
- Memory of Christ (Lord’s Supper reminds us of Christ’s love even unto death 4.078, 4.029, 5.195, 6.162)
- Invocation of the Holy Spirit (H.S. joins us to Christ, 4.076)
- Communion of the Faithful (binds us together, 6.161, 9.52)
- Meal in the Kingdom (Breaking bread feeds us, 5.202, 9.52)