1. Manager
    Someone who coordinates and oversees the work of other people in order to accomplish organizational goals.
  2. First line managers
    The lowest level of management who manage the work of nonmanagerial employees and typically are directly or indirectly involved with producing the organization�s products or servicing the organization�s customers.
  3. Middle Managers
    Managers between the lowest level and top levels of the organization who mange the work of first line managers.
  4. Top managers
    Managers at or near the upper levels of the organization structure whoare responsible for making organizationwide decsions and establishing the goals and plans that affect the entire organization.
  5. Management
    Coordination and oversight of the work activities of others so that their activities are completely efficiently and effectively.
  6. Efficiency
    Doing things right or getting the most output from the least amount of inputs
  7. Effectiveness
    Doing right things or completing activities so that organizational goals are attained.
  8. Planning
    A management function that involves defining goals, establishing strategies for achieving those goals and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities
  9. Organizing
    A management function that involves arranging and structuring work to accomplish organizational goals
  10. Leading
    A management function that involves working with and through people to accomplish organizational goals
  11. Controlling
    A management function that involves monitoring, comparing, and correcting work performance
  12. Management Roles
    Specific categories of managerial behavior
  13. Interpersonal Roles
    Managerial roles involve people and other duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature
  14. Informational roles
    Managerial roles that involve collecting, receiving and disseminating information.
  15. Decisional Roles
    Managerial roles that revolve around making choices.
  16. Technical Skills
    Job-specific knowledge and techniques needed to proficiently perform work tasks.
  17. Human Skills
    The ability to work well with other people individually and in a group.
  18. Conceptual Skills
    The ability to think and conceptualize about abstract and complex situations.
  19. Organization
    A deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose.
  20. Universality of Management
    The reality that management is needed in all type sand sizes of organizations, at all organizational levels, in all organizational areas, and in organizations no matter the location.
  21. Omnipotent View of Management
    The view that managers are directly responsible for an organization�s success or failure.
  22. Symbolic View of Management
    The view that much of an organization�s success or failure is due to external forces outside manager�s control.
  23. Organizational Culture
    The shared values, principles, traditions and ways of things that influence the way organizational members act.
  24. Strong Cultures
    Organizational cultures in which the key values are intensely held and widely shared.
  25. Socialization
    The process that helps employees adapt to the organization�s culture.
  26. Workplace Spirituality
    A feature of a culture where organizational values promote a sense of purpose through meaningful work that takes place in the context of community.
  27. External Environment
    Factors and forces outside an organization that affect the organization�s performance.
  28. Specific Environment
    External forces that have a direct impact on managers� decisions and actions and are directly relevant to the achievement of an organization�s goals.
  29. General Environment
    Broad external conditions that many affect an organization.
  30. Environmental Uncertainty
    The degree of change and complexity in an organization�s environment.
  31. Environmental Complexity
    The number of components in an organization�s environment and the extent of the organization�s knowledge about those components.
  32. Parochialism
    Viewing the world solely through one�s own eyes and perspectives and not recognizing that others have different ways of living and working. Parochialism leads to an inability to recognize differences between people.
  33. Ethnocentric Attitude
    The parochialistic belief that the best work approaches and practices are those of the home country.
  34. Polycentric Attitude
    The view that managers in the host country know the best work approaches and practices for running their business.
  35. Geocentric Attitude
    A world oriented view that focuses on using the best approaches and people from around the globe.
  36. European Union (EU)
    An economic and political partnership of 27 democratic European countries created as a unified economic and trade entity. Three additional countries have applied for membership.
  37. Euro
    A single common European currency.
  38. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
    An agreement among the Mexican, Canadian, and US governments that has eliminated barriers to trade.
  39. Association of Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN)
    A trading alliance of 10 Southeast Asian nations.
  40. World Trade Organization (WTO)
    A global organization of 153 countries that deals with the rules of trade among nations.
  41. Multinational Corporations (MNCs)
    A broad term that refers to any and all types of international companies that maintain operations in multiple countries.
  42. Mutidomestic Corporation
    An international company that decentralizes management and other decisions to the local country.
  43. Global Company
    An international company that centralizes management and other decisions in the home country.
  44. Translational (or borderless) organization
    A type of international company in which artificial geographic barriers are eliminated.
  45. Global Sourcing (or global outsourcing)
    Purchasing materials or labor from around the world based on lowest cost.
  46. Exporting
    Making products domestically and selling them abroad.
  47. Importing
    Acquiring products made abroad and selling them domestically.
  48. Licensing
    An agreement in which an organization gives another organization the right to make or sell its products, using technology or product specifications.
  49. Franchising
    An agreement in which an organization gives another organization the tight to use its name and operating methods.
  50. Strategic Alliance
    A partnership between an organization and a foreign company partner(s) in which both share resources and knowledge in developing new products or building production facilities.
  51. Wikis
    Server software that allows users to freely create and edit Web page content using any Web browser.
  52. Blogs
    Web logs or online diaries
  53. Joint Venture
    A specific type of strategic alliance in which the partners agree to form a separate, independent organization for some business purpose.
  54. Foreign Subsidiary
    A direct investment in a foreign country that involves setting up a separate and independent facility or office.
  55. Free market Economy
    An economic system in which resources are primarily owned and controlled by the private sector
  56. Planned Economy
    An economic system in which all economic decisions are planned by a central government
  57. National Culture
    The values and attitudes shared by individuals from a specific country that shape their behavior and beliefs about what is important.
  58. Globe
    The Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness research program - a program that studies cross-cultural leadership behaviors
  59. Social Obligation
    A firm�s engaging in social actions because of its obligation to meet certain economic and legal responsibilities.
  60. Classical View
    The view that management�s only responsibility is to maximize profits.
  61. Socioeconomic View
    The view that management�s social responsibility goes beyond making profits and includes protecting and improving society�s welfare.
  62. Social Responsiveness
    A firm�s engaging in social actions in response to some popular social need.
  63. Social Responsibility
    A business�s intention, beyond its legal and economic obligations, to do the right things and act in ways that are good for society.
  64. Social Screening
    Applying social criteria (screens) to investment decisions.
  65. Ethics
    Principles, values, and beliefs that define what is right and what is wrong behavior
  66. Values
    Basic convictions about what is right and what is wrong.
  67. Ego Strength
    A personality measure of the strength of a person�s convictions.
  68. Locus of control
    A personality attribute that measures the degree to which people believe they control their own fate.
  69. Values-based management
    A form of management in which an organization�s values guide employees in the way they do their jobs.
  70. Code of Ethics
    A formal statement of an organization�s primary values and the ethical rules it expects its employees to follow.
  71. Whistle Blower
    An individual who raises ethical concerns or issues to others.
  72. Decision
    A choice from two or more alternatives
  73. Problem
    An obstacle that makes achieving a desired goal or purpose difficult
  74. Decision Criteria
    Criteria that define what�s important or relevant in resolving a problem.
  75. Rational Decision making
    A type of decision making in which choices are logical and consistent and maximize value.
  76. Bounded Rationality
    Decision making that�s rational but limited (bounded) by an individual�s ability to process information.
  77. Satisfice
    To accept solutions that are �good enough�
  78. Escalation of Commitment
    An increased commitment to a previous decision despite evidence that it may have been a poor decision.
  79. Intuitive Decision Making
    Making decisions on the basis of experience, feelings, and accumulated judgment.
  80. Structured Problem
    A straightforward, familiar and easily defined problem
  81. Programmed Decision
    A repetitive decision that can be handled using a routine approach
  82. Procedure
    A series of sequential steps used to respond to a well-structured problem
  83. Rule
    An explicit statement that tells managers what can or cannot be done.
  84. Policy
    A guideline for making decisions
  85. Unstructured Problem
    A problem that is new or unusual and for which information is ambiguous or incomplete.
  86. Nonprogrammed decision
    A unique and nonrecurring decision that requires a custom-made solution
  87. Certainty
    A situation in which a decision maker can make accurate decisions because all outcomes are known.
  88. Risk
    A situation in which the decision maker is able to estimate the likelihood of certain outcomes.
  89. Uncertainty
    A situation in which a decision maker has neither certainty nor reasonable probability estimates available
  90. Business Performance Management Software
    IT software that provides key performance indicators to help managers monitor efficiency of projects and employees. - Also known as corporate management software.
  91. Linear thinking style
    A decision style characterized by a person�s preference for using external data and facts and processing this information through rational, logical thinking.
  92. Nonlinear thinking style
    A decision style characterized by a person�s preference for internal sources of information and processing this information with internal insights, feeling and hunches.
  93. Heuristics
    Rule so thumb that managers use to simplify decision making
  94. Organizing
    Arranging and structuring work to accomplish an organization�s goals.
  95. Organizational Structure
    The formal arrangement of jobs within an organization.
  96. Organizational Chart
    The visual representation of an organization�s structure
  97. Organizational Design
    Creating or changing an organization�s structure
  98. Work Specialization
    Dividing work activities into separate job tasks
  99. Departmentalization
    The basics on which jobs are grouped together
  100. Cross-functional teams
    Work teams composed of individuals from various functional specialties
  101. Chain of command
    The line of authority extending from upper organizational levels to the lowest levels which clarifies who reports to whom
  102. Authority
    The rights in a managerial position to tell people what to do and to expect them to do it.
  103. Responsibility
    The obligation or expectation to perform any assigned duties.
  104. Unity of command
    The management principle that each person should report to only one manager.
  105. Span of control
    The number of employees a manager can efficiently and effectively manage.
  106. Centralization
    The degree to which decision making is concentrated at upper levels of the organization
  107. Decentralization
    The degree to which lower level employees provide input or actually make decisions.
  108. Employee Empowerment
    Giving employees more authority to make decisions.
  109. Formalization
    How standardized an organization�s jobs are and the extent to which employees� behavior is guided by rules and procedures.
  110. Mechanistic Organization
    An organizational design that�s rigid and tightly controlled.
  111. Organic Organization
    An organizational design that�s highly adaptive and flexible
  112. Unit Production
    The production of items in units or small batches
  113. Mass production
    The production of items in large batches
  114. Process Production
    The production of items in continuous processes.
  115. Simple Structure
    An organizational design with low departmentalization, wide spans of control, central authority, and little formalization
  116. Functional Structure
    An organizational design that groups together similar or related occupational specialties.
  117. Divisional Structure
    An organizational structure made up of separate, semiautonomous units or divisions
  118. Team structure
    An organizational structure in which the entire organization is made up of work groups of teams
  119. Matrix Structure
    An organizational structure that assigns specialists from different functional departments to work on one or more projects.
  120. Project Structure
    An organizational structure in which employees continuously work on projects
  121. Boundaryless Organization
    An organization whose design is not defined by or limited to the horizontal, vertical and external boundaries imposed by a predefined structure.
  122. Virtual Organization
    An organization that consists of a small core of full-time employees and outside specialist temporarily hired as needed to work on projects.
  123. Network Organization
    An organization that uses its own employees to do some work activities and networks of outside suppliers to provide other needed product components or work processes.
  124. Learning Organization
    An organization that has developed the capacity to continuously learn, adapt and change
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