Anthro Exam 2

  1. Who said there were 4 races?
    Fredrick Blumenback
  2. What four races did Frederick Blumenback come up with?
    Caucasian African Asian Native American
  3. What was Lewis Henry Morgan's idea of Unilineal Evolution?
    • Cultures evolve from lower forms to higher forms
    • Savagery-Barbarism-Civilization
  4. Franz Boas
    • Tried to understand the difference of being born in different places
    • Used European immigrants measured heads
  5. What did Robert Lewinskin do?
    Discovered that race only accounted for only 5-10% of genetic diversity
  6. What's a cline?
    A gradual change in some phenotypical characteristic from one population to the next
  7. What are the 3 stages of life?
    • Prenatal
    • Natal
    • Adult
  8. How long does prenatal last?
    9 months split into 3 trimesters
  9. Stages of post natal
    Neonatal 1 month. Infancy goes to 3 years. Childhood 3-7. Juvenile puberty. Adolescence 5-10 years after puberty
  10. What can be used to determine age?
    Long bones
  11. What are the adult stages?
    Aging and Senescence, biological process characterized by a reduction in homeostasis
  12. Problems with long childhood?
    Lots of food need a division of labor
  13. What's Genetic Adaptation?
    Natural Selection/mutations
  14. What are Developed Mental Adaptations?
    Body adapts to birth enviroment
  15. What are Physiological Adaptations?
    Adjusting to enviroments
  16. What are Behavioral Adaptations?
    Clothing and shelter
  17. What's Bergmann's Rule?
    Heat adapted mammals will have a higher surface area
  18. What's Allen's rule?
    Heat adapted animals have longer limbs
  19. What's the best predictor of skin color?
    How close the person lives to the equator
  20. Why does the body need UV radiation?
    To synthesize DNA
  21. What's Hypoxia?
    When an animal is unable to breathe in adequate oxygen
  22. What is the thrifty gene?
    Pima and Tohono O'odham tribes have it. It means they have trouble with fat and now 50% have diabetes
  23. What makes a primate?
    • Mammals. Arboreal Adaptation. Dietary Plasticity. Parental Involvement
    • Powerful grips and opposable thumbs
  24. what are other primate characteristics?
    • Enhanced touch and vision
    • Reduced sense of smell and hearing.
    • Dietary plasticity
  25. Old world monkeys and apes Dentition
  26. New World Monkeys Dentition
  27. T/F Female primates give birth more than most mammals?
  28. What are promisians?
    Lemurs, Lorises, Tarsiers and Galagos
  29. What are anthropoids?
    All monkeys and apes
  30. What are the habitats of Promisians and Anthropoids?
    Tropical or Semi Tropical Regions
  31. What is the locomotion of Anthropoids?
    Quadrapedal. Brachiation or Semi Brachiation
  32. Where do Lemurs live?
    Madagascar + other coastal islands
  33. Where do lorises live?
    India Sri Lanka S.E Asia and Africa
  34. Where do Galago's live?
    Sub Saharan Africa
  35. Where do Tarsiers Live?
    Islands in S.E Asia
  36. What are Platyrhines?
    New world flat nose monkeys
  37. What are Catarhines?
    Down Facing Nostrils old world monkeys
  38. Facts on Old World Monkeys
    • Ischial Collosites(butt pads)
    • Well developed balance and communication
    • Females of many show estrus
    • Cercopithecines(cheek pouches)
    • Colobines(Leaf eaters)
  39. New World Monkeys
    • Collitrichids and Cebids
    • Tropical Forests of S. Mexico and Central and South America
  40. Gibbons and Siamangs
    Tropical S.E Asia
  41. Orangutangs
    Indonesian Island of Borneo and Sumatra
  42. Gorillas
    West+Central Africa
  43. Chimpanzees and Bonobos
    Equatorial Africa
  44. Facts About Primate Societies
    • Are complexly organized
    • Include long term social relations
    • Communicate with vocalization
  45. Primate Reproductive Strategies
    • Males Compete for mates, causes sexual dimorphism
    • Females compete for resources
  46. What are fossils?
    Fossils are the remains of organisms that are chemically changed into rock
  47. Why are fossils important?
    • Phylogeny-The evolutionary relationships of biological organisms
    • Paleontology-The study of extinct life forms
    • Taphonomy-The study of what happens to an organisms remains after death
  48. Slate Paobo
    Mapped the Neanderthal Genome
  49. Gradualism?
    Evolution is gradual and continuous
  50. Punctuated Equilibrium?
    Long periods of stasis alternating with short periods of rapid evolution
  51. Limitations of Fossilization?
    • Variations in Preservation
    • Great Time Scale
    • Accuracy of Dating Techniques
  52. Three Eras of time in evolution
    • Paleozoic(545-245mya)
    • Mesozoic(245-65mya)
    • Cenzoic(65-present)
  53. Dating Methods
    • Relative-producing a date in relation to other materials
    • Absolute-Methods that give a numerical time frame
  54. Stratigraphic Correlation
    Materials found in the same strata or layer are close to the same age
  55. Sterio's law of Superpositon
    Oldest layer of strata at the bottom
  56. What chemical can be used to find the date?
  57. Bio stratigraphic dating
    uses the association of fossils in strata to determine each layers approximate age
  58. Cultural Dating
    Using Lithics like pottery
  59. Dendrochronology
    Tree ring dating made by A.E Douglas
  60. Radio Carbon Dating
    Willard Libby. Uses the decay of carbon-14. Uses to date objects up to 70,000 years
  61. Radio Potassium Dating
    Measure potassium to argon 49. Can be used to 200,000 years
  62. Other forms
    • Amino Acid
    • Fission Track
    • Paleomagnetic
    • Electron spin resonance
    • Luminescence
    • Genetic
  63. Problems
    • High costs
    • Limits to certain techniques
    • Having the right material
  64. How to reconstruct climate
    Measures oxygen isotopes 18+16 in deep sea sediments+ice cores
  65. Reconstructing diet+habits
    Chemical analysis of bone+teeth
  66. Plants use C4 or C3 photosynthesis
    • C4 plants wet environment
    • C3 plants open grassland tropical savannah
  67. Why did primates emerge?
    • 1900's Smith and Jones Arboreal Hypothesis
    • 1970s Matt Cartmill Visual Predation Hypothesis Developed traits to hunt small animals
    • Randall Sussmen Angiosperm Radiation Primates develop in order to exploit fruits
  68. Paleocene Epoch(65-57.8mya)
    • Plesialapoforms Highly diverse group of mammals that may have lead to us.
    • Problems lack certain key characteristics
  69. Eocene Epoch(56.8-36.6mya)
    • Euprimates first true primates
    • Adapids-Day time with long snouts
    • Omomyids-nocturnal like tarsiers
  70. Olyocene Epoch
    • Fayum Depression-Egypt-heartland of ancestors
    • Fayum Primates-Oligopithecids-Parapithecids
    • -Propliopithecids most like us
    • Aegyptopithecus-one of the most likely ancestors to catarhines
    • Branisella-27mya South Africa Platyrhines
  71. Miocene Epoch(23.7-5.3mya)
    • Apes leave africa
    • Dryopethicus-Europe 13mya
    • Sirapithecus-Asia 12-8mya
    • Giganthopithicus-8-.5mya
    • Apes decline monkeys rise
Card Set
Anthro Exam 2
Anthropology Study Cards