1. Infection
    Entry into the body of an infectious agent
  2. Microorganism
    Organism only visible with a microscope
  3. Pathogens
    Microorganisms that are capable of causing disease
  4. Normal Flora
    • Nonpathogenic organisms that are prevalent on and in the body
    • Prevent more harmful microorganisms from clonozing and multiplying within the body
  5. Endotoxins
    Responsible for the symptoms scene in botulism, tetanus, diphitheria, and E Coli infections
  6. Bacteria
    • Single celled microorganism lacking a nucleus that reproduce anywhere from every few minutes to several weeks
    • 2 categories
    • 1)Aerobic: need oxygen to grow and thrive
    • 2)Anaerobic: can only grow in the absence of oxygen
    • Shapes:
    • Cocci: round
    • Bacilli: rod-shaped
    • Spirochetes: spiral/ corkscrew shaped
  7. Antibiotic
    Chemical substance that can kill or alter the growth of microorganisms
  8. Types of Multidrug-resistant organisms
    • 1)Methicillian-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA)
    • 2)Vancomvcin-resistant Enterococcus(VRE)
    • 3)Clostridium difficile(C. diff)
  9. Antimicrobial Agent
    Killing or surpressing growth of microorganisms
  10. Prions
    • Protein particles that lack nuclei acids and not inactivated by usual methods for destroying viruses
    • Don't trigger an immune response but cause degenerative neurologic disease
  11. Viruses
    • Composed of particles of nuclei acids, either DNA or RNA, with a coat of protein and in some cases and membraneous envelope
    • Can only grow and replicate within a living cell(host cell)
  12. Protozoa
    • One celled microscopic organisms belonging to the animal kingdom
    • Plasmodium: protozoa that are pathogenic to humans
  13. Rickettsia
    • Small round or rod-shaped microorganisms that are transmitted by the bites of lice, ticks, fleas, and mites that act as vectors
    • Multiply only in host cells
  14. Fungi
    • Tiny primative organisms of the plant kingdom that contain no chlorophyll
    • Reproduce by means of spores
  15. Helminths
    Parasitic worms or flukes and belong to the animal kingdom
  16. Mycoplasmas
    Small organisms without a cell wall
  17. Link 1- Causative Agent
    Any microorganism or biological agent capable of causing disease
  18. Characteristics that affect virulence
    • 1)Ability to adhere to mucosal surfaces or skin
    • 2)Penitrate mucous membranes
    • 3)Multiply once in the body
    • 4)Secrete harmful enzymes or toxins
    • 5)Resist phagocytosis
  19. Methods used to destroy pathogens
    Disinfection and Sterilization
  20. Sterilization
    • Process of destroying all microorganisms and pathogen products
    • Best moethod of eliminating microorganisms from equipment and supplies
  21. Link 2- Reservior
    • Place in which microorganisms are found (they pool in these places)
    • Types of reserviors
    • Infected wounds
    • Human or animal waste
    • Animals or insects
    • Contaminated food and water
    • Person with the infection
  22. Sterile
    Without pathogenic organisms
  23. Link 3- Portal of Exit
    Route by which a pathogen leaves the body of its host
  24. Link 4- Mode of Transfer
    • 1)Direct personal contact with body excreta or draining from an ulcer, infected wound, boil, or chancre
    • 2)Indirect personal contact with a contaminated object
    • 3)Vectors such as fleas, ticks, mosquitos, and other insects that harbor infectious agents and transmit infection to humans through bites and stings
    • 4)Droplet infection
    • 5)Spread of infection from one part of the body to another
  25. Link5- Portal of Entry
    • Place where pathogenic organisms enter the body
    • Can be the body through the eyes, mouth, nose, traches, skin, and mucous membranes
  26. Link 6- Susceptible Host
    • A human host may be susceptible by virtue of age, state of health, or broken skin
    • Those at highest risk due to age are the Elderly and Infants
  27. Susceptibility of the Elderly
    • Many factors can place the elderly persona at a higher risk such as
    • Poor nutrition
    • Poor mobility
    • Poor hygiene
    • Chronic illness(physiological changes can affect all of the these)
  28. Health-care associated infection
    • Acquired by patients in health care facilities after microorganisms are transferred to the patient by contaminated objects or infected people
    • AKA: Nosocomial
  29. Body's first line of defense against infection
    The skin acts as a protctive barrier as well as through sweat and secretions that inhibit the growth of bacteria
  30. Places lysozyme is found
    • Mucosus membranes that line the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and reproductive tract
    • Tears and cilia also contain it
  31. Bones
    Protect vital and delicate organs
  32. Bone Marrow
    Produce defensive blood cells
  33. Kupffer Cells
    Found in the liver destorying bacteria, liver also detoxifys harmful chemicals
  34. Second line of Defense
    • Helps destroy pathogens that excape the first line of defense such as
    • Fever
    • Leukocytosis
    • Phagocytosis
    • Inflammation
    • Actions of interferons( biologic responses modifier that affects all cell growth)
  35. Inflammatory Response
    • Is a localized protective response brought on by injury or destruction of tissue
    • Basic purposes:
    • 1)neutralize and destory harmful agents
    • 2)limit their spread to other tissues in the body
    • 3)prepare the tissue for repair
  36. Third line of defense
    • Immune response which is triggered by microorganisms and other substances that do not belong in the body
    • Type of response is specific to the type of invader
  37. Naturally acquired immunity
    Once the body is exposed to a microorganism the body will produce antibodies against that invader
  38. Passive acquired immunity
    Occur when a person is given an antitoxin or antiserum that contains antibodies or antitoxins that have been developed in another person
  39. Naturally acquired passive immunity
    Occurs when the fetus receives antibodies from the mother through placental blood before birth
  40. Artificially acquired immunity
    Acheived through injection of vaccines or immunizing substances that contain dead or inactive microorganisms or their toxins
  41. Artifically acquired passive immunity
    Provided by injection with antibodies derrived from the infected blood of people or animals
  42. Asepsis
    The practice of making the environment and objects free of microorganisms
  43. Medical Asepsis
    • Practice of reducing the number of organisms present or reducing the risk for transmission of organisms
    • AKA: Clean technique
  44. Surgical Asepsis
    • Practice of preparing and handling materials in a way that precents the patient's exposure to living microorganisms
    • AKA: Sterile Technique- involes making all equipment completely free of organisms
  45. Hand Hygiene
    • One of the most affective ways to reduce the number of microorganisms on the hands thereby preventing the transfer of microorganisms from one object to another from one person to another
    • Health care workers must preform hand hygiene before and after giving patient care
  46. Alcohol Rub
    Can be used when hands are not visibly soiled
  47. Jewlery
    Should not be worn with the exception of a single wedding band because they can harbor bacteria
  48. 1/4 Inch
    The allowed length of nails because short nails are easy to clean under completely
  49. Standard Precautions
    • Protect both the nurse and the patient and are to be used for every patient contact
    • Created by the CDC to break the chain of infection
  50. Personal Protective Equippment(PPE)
    • Includes
    • Gloves
    • Gown
    • Masks
    • Protective eyeware
    • Shoe covering
    • Hair covering
  51. Gown
    Clean barrier gown that is impermeable to fluid. Is worn when there is a chance of being splashed or when fluid may be aerosolized
  52. Mask
    Applied before entering the room if there is a chance the nurse will be in contact with airborne pathogens or splashed by body fluids
  53. N95 Mask
    Is used when any dangerous airborne microorganisms are known to be present
  54. Protective Eyeware
    • Prevent fluid from entering the eye area and coming in contact with the mucosa or surface of the eye
    • Include: Goggles, face sheild, or glasses with side and top pieces
  55. Head Cover
    Cap or head cover is placed on the head if there is danger of contamination of the hair or if microorganism resident in the hair might endanger the patient
  56. Shoe Cover
    Covered so that pathogens are not carried out of the room, covers are removed when exitting the room in the same manner as head covers
  57. Gloves
    Used for standard precautions and are worn when there is a chance that there will be contact with blood, or body fluids, mucous membranes, nonintact skin, or secretions/excretions
  58. Hand Hygiene and Gloves
    • Hand hygiene is preformed before and and after gloving because no glove is 100% protective
    • Gloves are never reused or washed
  59. Disposal of Sharps
    • Directly placed in a special red, puncture-resistant sharps biohazard container immediately after use
    • Do not recap needles after they are used!
  60. Contaminated waste
    Items contaminated with infectious material must be disposed of in sealed impermeable placsitc bags marked "Hazardous Waste" or "Biohazard"
  61. Steps of Cleaning Objects
    • 1) Rinse the object with cold water to remove organic material. Hot water coagulates proten contained in organic material making it adhere to the item
    • 2) Once all organic material appears to have been removed wash the object with hot soapy water. Soap's emulsifying action reduces surface tensions and helps remove soil
    • 3)Use a stiff bristled brush or abrasive to clean equipment with grooves and narrow spaces. Friction helps dislodge soil.
    • 4)Rinse object well with moderately hot water.
    • 5)Dry the object. It is now considered clean but not serile.
    • Always disinfect equipment and the sink when you have finished cleaning soiled onjects
  62. Disinfectant
    Soulutions containing chemical compounds such as phenol, alcohol, or chlorine that kills or inactivate nearly all microorganisms
  63. Antiseptic
    A chemical compound that is used on skin or tissue to inhibit the growth of or to eliminate microorganisms
  64. Methods of Sterilization
    • 1)steam/moist heat
    • 2)Dry heat/hot air
    • 3)Etholyene gas
    • 4)Low temperature gas plasma
    • 5)radiation
  65. Asepsis at home
    • Precautions at home are not as stingent as in the hospital because the ordinary home doesn't contain the many pathogens found in the hospital environment
    • Best method of sterilization at home is boiling water
  66. Things that make patients high risk for infection
    • 1)Are weakened by injury or severe illness
    • 2)Have another chronic illness
    • 3)Have a central venous catheter
    • 4)Are very young or very old
    • 5)Have an open wound
    • 6)Have a surgical incision
    • 7)Have a compromised immune system from chemotherapy or immunosupression
Card Set
Chapter 16 cards