RT cards.txt

  1. Alveolar Air Equation (PaO2)
    PAO2 = (PB-47)FIO2 - [(PaCO2)(1.25)]
  2. Total O2 content equation
    CaO2 = (SaO2)(Hgb)(1.34) + .003(PaO2)
  3. Neutrophil
    Neutrophils defend against bacterial or fungal infection
  4. Eosinophil
    Eosinophils primarily deal with parasitic infections and an increase in them may indicate such. Eosinophils are also the predominant inflammatory cells in allergic reactions. The most important causes of eosinophilia include allergies such as asthma, hay fever, and hives; and also parasitic infections. Generally their nucleus is bi-lobed. The cytoplasm is full of granules which assume a characteristic pink-orange color with eosin stain.
  5. Basophil
    Basophils are chiefly responsible for allergic and antigen response by releasing the chemical histamine causing inflammation. The nucleus is bi- or tri-lobed, but it is hard to see because of the number of coarse granules which hide it. They are characterized by their large blue granules.
  6. Lymphocyte
    Lymphocytes are much more common in the lymphatic system. Lymphocytes are distinguished by having a deeply staining nucleus which may be eccentric in location, and a relatively small amount of cytoplasm. The blood has three types of lymphocytes:B cells: B cells make antibodies that bind to pathogens to enable their destruction. (B cells not only make antibodies that bind to pathogens, but after an attack, some B cells will retain the ability to produce an antibody to serve as a 'memory' system.)T cells:CD4+ (helper) T cells co-ordinate the immune response and are important in the defense against intracellular bacteria. In acute HIV infection, these T cells are the main index to identify the individual's immune system activity. Research has shown [9] that CD8+ cells are also another index to identify human's immune activity.CD8+ cytotoxic T cells are able to kill virus-infected and tumor cells.γδ T cells possess an alternative T cell receptor as opposed to CD4+ and CD8+ αβ T cells and share characteristics of helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells.Natural killer cells: Natural killer cells are able to kill cells of the body which are displaying a signal to kill them, as they have been infected by a virus or have become cancerous.
  7. Monocyte
    Monocytes share the "vacuum cleaner" (phagocytosis) function of neutrophils, but are much longer lived as they have an additional role: they present pieces of pathogens to T cells so that the pathogens may be recognized again and killed, or so that an antibody response may be mounted. Monocytes eventually leave the bloodstream to become tissue macrophages which remove dead cell debris as well as attacking microorganisms. Neither of these can be dealt with effectively by the neutrophils. Unlike neutrophils, monocytes are able to replace their lysosomal contents and are thought to have a much longer active life. They have the kidney shaped nucleus and are typically agranulated. They also possess abundant cytoplasm.Once monocytes move from the bloodstream out into the body tissues, they undergo changes (differentiate) allowing phagocytosis and are then known as macrophages.
  8. henderson hasselbalch
    Image Upload 1
  9. PaO2 between 80 - 100 mmHg on RA
    normal PaO2
  10. PaO2 between 60 - 79 mmHg on RA
    mild hypoxemia
  11. PaO2 between 40-59 mmHg on RA
    Moderate hypoxemia
  12. PaO2 <40 mmHg on RA
    Severe hypoxemia
  13. CaO2 range
  14. CaO2 abs normal
    20 vol %
  15. P(A-a)O2
    10-25 mmHg
  16. C(a-v)O2
    5 vol %
  17. Hgb norm range
    11-18 gm/dl
  18. PAO2 on room air
    100 mmHg
  19. PAO2 on 1.0 O2
    663 mmHg
  20. a/A ratio
  21. Venous pH
    7.31. - 7.41
  22. PvCO2 range
    41-51 mmHg
  23. PvCO2 abs norm
    46 mmHg
  24. PvO2 range
    35-42 mmHg
  25. PvO2 abs norm
    40 mmHh
  26. SvO2 range
  27. CvO2 range
    12-15 vol %
Card Set
RT cards.txt