Altitude Awareness Callout -
One thousand feet prior to the desired altitude, the PM states the current altitude and the assigned altitude. For example, “Six for Five.” The PF responds “Checks.”
How do you do a proper oxygen mask check?
- • Select the status display.
- • Oxygen mask – Stowed and doors closed
- • RESET/TEST switch – Push and hold
- – Verify that the yellow cross shows momentarily in the flow indicator.
- • EMERGENCY/TEST selector – Push and hold
- – Continue to hold the RESET/TEST switch and push the EMERGENCY/TEST selector for 10 seconds. Verify that the yellow cross shows continuously in the flow indicator.
- • Verify that the crew oxygen pressure does not decrease more than 100 psig.
- • If the oxygen cylinder valve is not in the full open position, pressure can:
- • decrease rapidly, or
- • decrease more than 100 psig, or
- • increase slowly back to normal
- • Release the RESET/TEST switch and the EMERGENCY/TEST selector. Verify that the yellow cross does not show in the flow indicator.
- • Normal/100% selector – 100%
- • Crew oxygen pressure – Check EICAS
- – Verify that the pressure is sufficient for dispatch.
What is a proper fuel check?
- FuelQuantity... Check
- • Verify fuel on board is equal to or greater than minimum fuel listed on the release plus expected taxi fuel burn.
- – Previous fuel on board plus fuel loaded should be checked for reasonableness.
- – Check to ensure fuel quantity indicators agree with fuel listed on the FMC.
When we begin to pressurize the hydraulic system, why do we start pressurizing the right ystem first?
Prevents fluid transfer between systems.
Sequence for pressurizing the hydraulic system-
- • Right ELECTRIC DEMAND pump selector – AUTO
- – Verify that the PRESS light is extinguished.
- • Center 1 and Center 2 ELECTRIC PRIMARY pump switches – ON – Verify that the center 1 PRESS light is extinguished. – The center 2 PRESS light stays illuminated until after the engine start due to load shedding.
- • Left ELECTRIC DEMAND pump selector – AUTO
- – Verify that the PRESS light is extinguished.
- • Center AIR DEMAND pump selector – AUTO
- – Verify that the PRESS light is extinguished.
On engine start when can the Fuel Control Switch be selected ON?
At maximum motoring and a minimum N2 of 15%.
On engine start when can the Fuel Control Switch be selected ON when the engines have been shutdown less than two hours?
On starts less than two hours after engine shutdown, maximum motoring N2 must be maintained for 30 seconds and EGT is less than 160°C prior to fuel introduction.
Aborted engine start (5)
- the EGT does not increase by 20 seconds after the fuel control switch is moved to RICH or RUN
- • there is no N1 rotation when the EGT increases
- • the EGT quickly nears or exceeds the start limit
- • the N2 is not at idle by 2 minutes after the fuel control switch is moved to RICH or RUN
- • the oil pressure indication is not normal by the time that the engine is stabilized at idle
What is the proper taxi technique.
Avoid constant riding of the brakes. Instead, the aircraft may be allowed to accelerate and one brake application is used to bring the aircraft to a slow speed. This technique is recommended over many or constant brake applications to maintain a constant speed.
On T/O, where do we first position the throttles?
1.10 EPR. Allow the engines to stabilize.
What crew action is performed when passing 10,000 ft?
2 chimes to the F/A's
when are the CENTER FUEL PUMPS selected off?
When the CTR L and CTR R FUEL PUMP messages are shown
What is required during the last hour of cruise on ETOPS flights?
Do a Fuel Crossfeed Valve check if a single Crossfeed Valve is installed.
What crew action is required when passing through 18000'?
Tuen ON/OFF landing lights.
What caution should exist when using LNAV to intercept a locializer during an aprroach?
When using LNAV to intercept the localizer, LNAV might parallel the localizer without capturing it. The aircraft can then descend on the VNAV path with the localizer not captured
During landing when engine reverse are used, what is it that you cannot do?
Cannot attempt a go-around.
At what spped should you begin to transit out of reverse thrust?
By 60 knots, start movement of the reverse thrust levers to be at the reverse idle detent before taxi speed. Upon reverser stowage start clock to allow minimum 5 minutes cool-down time before shutdown.
During landing, what should be called after disengaging the autobrakes?
When depressurizing the hydraulic, why should you depressurize the right system last?
to prevent fluid transfer between systems.
Before connecting a ground air conditioning cart, what should be done first?
turn the packs off.
Can you use windshield wipers on a dry windshield?
On the ground when you turn on the FD's what should you observe?
On ground, observe flight director command wings level and 8° pitch up and flight mode annunciations display TO, TO, FD.
If required to remain at or above the MDA(H) during the missed approach, missed approach must be initiated at -
least 50 feet above MDA(H).
If constraints or MDA(H) do not end in zero zero (00; for example, 1820), set MCP ALTITUDE window to the closest
100 foot increment below the constraint or MDA(H).
Is the A/P use recommended on a circiling approach?
Yes, uintil intercepting the landing profile.
What is the proper electrical power up procedure?
- Battery switch...ON
- Standby Power selector ...AUTO
- – Verify battery DISCH light illuminated and standby bus OFF light extinguishes.
- Hydraulic Electric Primary Pump switche...Off
- Hydraulic Demand Pump switches...Off
- Landing Gear Lever...DN
- Alternate Flaps selector...NORM
- Electrical Power... Establish
- Bus Tie switches...AUTO
- If external power is desired:
- If External Power AVAIL light is illuminated:
- External Power switch...Push
- If APU power is desired:
- APU Generator switch .... ON
- APU selector ...START, then ON
- – Position the APU selector back to the ON position. Do not allow the APU selector to spring back to the ON position.
What must be done with less than 90KVA ground power?
When external power source is less than required (90 KVA), aircraft electrical loads must be minimized by supplementing normalprocedures as follows:
Resetting Circuit Breakers
Do not reset a tripped circuit breaker inflight unless essential for flight, or checklist procedures or MOC advise you to do so. A tripped circuit breaker should not be reset for non-essential or unneeded equipment
What circuit breaker should never be reset?
fuel pump or fuel pump control circuit
After prolonged operation in icing conditions with the flaps extended, or
when an accumulation of airframe ice is observed, or when landing on
a runway contaminated with ice, snow, or slush what should be done with the flaps?
Do not retract the flaps to less than flaps 20 until the flap areas have been checked to be free of contaminants.
When is an engine run-up required for anti-ice? what is the procedure?
When engine anti-ice is required and the OAT is 3°C or below, do an engine run up, as needed, to minimize ice build-up.
Run-up to a minimum of 50% N1 for approximately 1 second duration at intervals no greater than 15 minutes.
What altitude should be considered if encountering severe turbulence?
Severe turbulence should be avoided if at all possible. If severe turbulence cannot be avoided, an increased buffet margin is recommended. This can be obtained by descending approximately 4,000 feet below optimum altitude. The autothrottle should be off in severe turbulence.
What are the performance limit codes?
- Limit code for the weight shown.
- C = Climb
- B = Brakes
- ^ = Obstacle
- T = Tires
- F = Field
- V = Vmcg
- A = Maximum AFM Chart Weight
When are QNH deviation adjustements required with the performance charts?
Low QNH adjustments are only required when the QNH is 29.82" or lower. High QNH adjustments are never required, but may be used when necessary.
How to determine V1
When the V1 determined for takeoff exceeds MAX V1, V1 will be set equal to MAX V1. DO NOT reduce VR. VR and V2 remain unchanged. If using reduced thrust, use Assumed MAX V1. MAX V1 and Assumed MAX V1 have already been corrected for density altitude and therefore need no adjustments.
What is the only circumstance when an RA should not be followed?
A DESCEND (FLY DOWN) RA ISSUED BELOW 1000 FEET AGL SHOULD NOT BE FOLLOWED
What are some indication of windshear?
- - 15 knots indicated airspeed
- - 500 FPM vertical speed
- - 5 degrees pitch attitude
- - 1 dot displacement from the glideslope
- - unusual thrust lever position for a significant period of time.
What stall characteristic is seen with leading edge flaps extended?
The leading edge devices ensure that the inboard wing stalls before the outboard wing. This causes the nose of the airplane to pitch down at the onset of the stall
Can you perorm a rapid descent with the ladning gear extended?
The rapid descent is normally made with the landing gear up. However, when structural integrity is in doubt and airspeed must be limited, extension of the landing gear may provide a more satisfactory rate of descent. If the landing gear is to be used during the descent, comply with the landing gear placard speeds.
If landing or performing an RTO in windy conditions, what should be considered?
If rejecting due to fire, in windy conditions, consider positioning the airplane so the fire is on the downwind side. After an RTO, comply with brake cooling requirements before attempting a subsequent takeoff
Statistical info on T/O rejects:
Although training has historically centered on engine failures as the primary reason to reject, statistics show engine thrust loss was involved in approximately one quarter of the accidents, and wheel or tire problems have caused almost as many accidents and incidents as have engine events. Other reasons that rejects occurred were for configuration, indication or light, crew coordination problems, bird strikes or ATC problems.
- It is important to note here is that the majority of past RTO accidents were not engine failure events. Full takeoff thrust from all engines was available. With
- normal takeoff thrust, the airplane should easily reach a height of 150 feet over the end of the runway, and the pilot has the full length of the runway to stop the airplane if an air turnback is required.
Above 80 knots and prior to V1, the takeoff should be rejected for any of the following (3)
- • fire or fire warning
- • engine failure
- • if the aircraft is unsafe or unable to fly.
After a RTO, when the aircraft is stopped, perform procedures as required.
- Review Brake Cooling Schedule for brake cooling time and precautions (refer to the Performance Inflight
- Consider the following:
- • The possibility of wheel fuse plugs melting
- • The need to clear the runway
- • The requirement for remote parking
- • Wind direction in case of fire
- • Alerting fire equipment
- • Not setting the parking brake unless passenger evacuation is necessary
- • Advising the ground crew of the hot brake hazard
- • Advising passengers of the need to remain seated or evacuate
- • Completion of Non–Normal checklist (if appropriate) for conditions which caused the RTO
What CDU page should be selected for each pilot before T/O?
- PF - climb page
- PM - legs page
If the possibility of windshear exist during T/O and the aircraft is not equiped with a windshear warning system, what should be done?
Tuen to FD's off for T/O
How is a standing T/O performed?
A standing takeoff procedure may be accomplished by holding the brakes until the engines are stabilized, ensure the nose wheel steering tiller is released, then release the brakes and promptly advance the thrust levers to takeoff thrust (autothrottle EPR, N1, or THR).
What is a consideration when setting intial T/O power?
- Allowing the engines to stabilize for more than approximately 2 seconds before advancing thrust levers to takeoff thrust may adversely affect
- takeoff distance.
What should the PM monitor during initial T/O power settings?
- The PM should verify that takeoff thrust has been set and the throttle hold mode (THR HOLD) is engaged. Once THR HOLD annunciates, the autothrottle
- cannot change thrust lever position, but thrust levers can be positioned manually. The THR HOLD mode remains engaged until another thrust mode is selected.
- NOTE: Takeoff into headwind of 20 knots or greater may result in THR HOLD before the autothrottle can make final thrust adjustments.
During strong T/O crosswinds, what is the perferred T/O method?
Engine surge can occur with a strong crosswind or tailwind component if takeoff thrust is set before brake release. Therefore, the rolling takeoff procedure is strongly advised when crosswinds exceed 20 knots or tailwinds exceed 10 knots.
Rotation and Takeoff during windy conditions:
- Begin the takeoff roll with the control wheel approximately centered. Throughout the takeoff roll, gradually increase control wheel displacement into the wind only enough to maintain approximately wings level.
- NOTE: Excessive control wheel displacement during rotation and liftoff increases spoiler deployment. As spoiler deployment increases, drag increases and lift is reduced which results in reduced tail clearance, a longer takeoff roll, and slower airplane acceleration.
- At liftoff, the airplane is in a sideslip with crossed controls. A slow, smooth recovery from this sideslip is accomplished by slowly neutralizing the control wheel and rudder pedals after liftoff.
T/O conditions for gusty wind and strong crosswind conditions.
For takeoff in gusty or strong crosswind conditions, use of a higher thrust setting than the minimum required is recommended. When the prevailing wind is at or near 90° to the runway, the possibility of wind shifts resulting in gusty tailwind components during rotation or liftoff increases. During this condition, consider the use of thrust settings close to or at maximum takeoff thrust. The use of a higher takeoff thrust setting reduces the required runway length and minimizes the airplane exposure to gusty conditions during rotation, liftoff, and initial climb.
After T/O what does the FD command?
After liftoff, the flight director commands pitch to maintain an airspeed of V2 + 15 to 25 knots until another pitch mode is engaged. V2 + 15 is the optimum climb speed with takeoff flaps. It results in the maximum altitude gain in the shortest distance from takeoff. Acceleration to higher speeds reduces the altitude gain. If airspeed exceeds V2 + 15 during the initial climb, stop the acceleration but do not attempt to reduce airspeed to V2 + 15. Any speed between V2 + 15 and V2 + 25 knots results in approximately the same takeoff profile. Crosscheck indicated airspeed for proper initial climb speed
What is max bank angle allowed with T/O flaps?
A maximum bank angle of 30° is permitted at V2 + 15 knots with takeoff flaps.
- Note: The maneuver speed provides margin to stick shaker for at least an inadvertent 15° overshoot beyond the normal 25° angle of bank.
What does the FD command after T/O with one engine inoperative?
The initial climb attitude should be adjusted to maintain a minimum of V2 and a positive climb. After liftoff the flight director provides proper pitch guidance. Cross check indicated airspeed, vertical speed and other flight instruments. The flight director commands a minimum of V2, or the existing speed up to a maximum of V2 + 15.
What speed should you fly if you lose an engine after T/O and during the climbout?
If an engine fails at an airspeed between V2 and V2 + 15, climb at the airspeed at which the failure occurred. If engine failure occurs above V2 + 15, increase pitch to reduce airspeed to V2 + 15 and maintain V2 + 15 until reaching acceleration height
Why after T/O my the A/P not engage?
On most airplanes, the TO roll and pitch modes are flight-director-only modes. The autopilot does not engage into the TO mode. The autopilot engages into the HDG HOLD or ATT (as installed) roll mode and the V/S pitch mode whenever the flight director TO roll and/or pitch mode is engaged.
What is Maximum Rate of Climb for the 767?
Flap up maneuver speed + 50 knots until M.78
Note: The FMC does not provide maximum rate of climb.
What is the Maximum Angle of Climb for the 767?
The FMC provides maximum angle climb speeds. Maximum angle climb speed is normally used for obstacle clearance, minimum crossing altitude or to reach a specified altitude in a minimum distance. It varies with gross weight and provides approximately the same climb gradient as flaps up maneuvering speed.
Maximum altitude is the highest altitude at which the airplane can be operated. It is determined by three basic characteristics, which are unique to each airplane model. The FMC predicted maximum altitude is the lowest of:(3)
- • maximum certified altitude (structural) - determined during certification and is usually set by the pressurization load limits on the fuselage
- • thrust limited altitude - the altitude at which sufficient thrust is available to provide a specific minimum rate of climb. (Reference the Long Range Cruise Maximum Operating Altitude table in the PI chapter of the QRH). Depending on the thrust rating of the engines, the thrust limited altitude may be above or below the maneuver altitude capability
- • buffet or maneuver limited altitude - the altitude at which a specific maneuver margin exists prior to buffet onset. This altitude provides at least a 0.2g margin (33° bank) for FAA operations
How do you isure the most accurate altitude limits from the FMC?
To get the most accurate altitude limits from the FMC, ensure that the airplane weight, cruise CG, and temperature entries are correct.
What is a concern when flying near the maximum FMC altitude.
- When at or near the FMC maximum altitude, it is possible for LNAV inputs to exceed the capability of the airplane. This could result in a loss of altitude or
- airspeed. Fly at least 10 knots above the lower amber band and use bank angles of 10° or less. If speed drops below the lower amber band, immediately increase speed by doing one or more of the following:
- • reduce angle of bank
- • increase thrust up to maximum continuous
- • descend.
Why should you fly close to optimum altitude?
The selected cruise altitude should normally be as close to optimum as possible. Optimum altitude is the altitude that gives the minimum trip cost for a given trip length, cost index, and gross weight. It provides approximately a 1.5 load factor (approximately 48° bank to buffet onset) or better buffet margin. As deviation from optimum cruise altitude increases, performance economy deteriorates
What bank angle prior to buffet onset can you expect when flying 2000 ft above optimum?
Some loss of thrust limited maneuver margin can be expected above optimum altitude. Levels 2000 feet above optimum altitude normally allows approximately 45° bank prior to buffet onset.
IF you experience cold fuel situation, what increase in fuel temp could you expect with an increase in speed?
An increase of 0.01 Mach results in an increase of 0.5° to 0.7° C total air temperature.
What are some cruise fuel penalties?
- Cruise fuel penalties include:
- • ISA + 10° C: 1% increase in trip fuel
- • 2,000 feet above/below optimum altitude: 1% to 2% increase in trip fuel
- • 4,000 feet below optimum altitude: 3% to 5% increase in trip fuel
- • 8,000 feet below optimum altitude: 8% to 14% increase in trip fuel
- • cruise speed 0.01M above LRC: 1% to 2% increase in trip fuel.
- For cruise within 2,000 feet of optimum, long range cruise speed can be approximated by using 0.80M. Long range cruise also provides the best buffet margin at all cruise altitudes.
- NOTE: If a discrepancy is discovered between actual fuel burn and flight plan fuel burn that cannot be explained by one of the items above, a fuel leak should be considered. Accomplish the applicable non-normal checklist
What action would be taken with an engine failure at cruise altitude>
If an engine failure occurs while at cruise altitude, it may be necessary to descend. The autothrottle should be disconnected, thrust reference set to CON and the thrust manually set to MCT on the operative engine. On the FMC ACT CRZ page, select the ENG OUT. This displays MOD CRZ calculated on engine out MCT and maintaining the airspeed displayed on the EO SPD line.
When do we do a fuel crossfeed check?
- During the last hour of cruise on all ETOPS flights, a fuel crossfeed valve check is done on airplanes with a singlecrossfeed valve. This verifies that the
- crossfeed valve is operating so that on the subsequent flight, if an engine fails, fuel is available from both main tanks through the crossfeed valve.
Must the IRU's be aligned to use the SATCOM on the ground?
What can you expect from the FMC as it deaccelerates to speed fixes on an approach?
Deceleration requirements below cruise altitude (such as at 10,000 MSL) are accomplished based on a rate of descent of approximately 500 fpm.
Rate of descent expected with speed:
0.78M/290 knots (clean/ with speedbrakes):
1800fpm / 2700 fpm
Rate of descent expected with speed: 250 knots (clean/ with speedbrakes):
1500 / 2000 fpm
Rate of descent expected with speed: Vref30+80 knots (clean/ with speedbrakes):
1200 / 1600 fpm
How many miles out should you plan on to arrive at the traffic/pattern altitude at clean manuvering speed for a straight-in approach
How many miles out should you plan on to arrive at the traffic/pattern altitude at clean manuvering speed for an abeam approach?
For planning purposes, how long and how many miles does it take to decelerate from 290 kts to 250 kts without sppedbrakes?
45 seconds and 3 miles
For planning purposes, how long and how many miles does it take to decelerate from 250 kts to clean maneuvering speedwithout sppedbrakes?
45 seconds and 3 miles.
From the questions above, how much will the use of speedbrakes help?
By approximately 30%
What is a problem with the use of speedbrakes with any flaps extended?
To avoid buffeting, use of speedbrakes with flaps greater than 5 should be avoided. If circumstances dictate the use of speedbrakes with flaps extended, high sink rates during the approach should be avoided. Speedbrakes should be retracted before reaching 1,000 feet AGL.
If holding and holding speed is greater than ICAO or FAA holding speed, then -
If the FMC holding speed is greater than the ICAO or FAA maximum holding speed, holding may be conducted at flaps 1, using flaps 1 maneuvering speed. Flaps 1 uses approximately 10% more fuel than flaps up. Holding speeds in the FMC provide an optimum holding speed based upon fuel burn and speed capability; but are never lower than flaps up maneuvering speed
If holding in icing or turbulence, what flpa setting should be maintinaed?
Maintain clean configuration if holding in icing conditions or in turbulence.
FAA hold speeds:
0 through 6000
6001 through 14000
14001 and above
- 0 through 6000 - 200kts
- 6001 through 14000 - 230 kts (210 in Washington and NY FIRs)
- 14001 and above - 265 kts
ICAO hold speeds:
0 through 14000
14001 through 20000
20001 through 34000
- 0 through 14000 -230 kts
- 14001 through 20000 - 240 kts
- 20001 through 34000 - 265 kts
- above 34000 - 0.83M
What recommended holding speeds can be approximated by using the following guidance until more accurate speeds are obtained from the QRH:
- • flaps up maneuvering speed approximates minimum fuel burn speed and may be used at low altitudes
- • above FL250, use VREF 30 + 100 knots to provide adequate buffet margin
What is the landing category for the B-767?
- C - 121 knots to 140 nots
- D - 141 knots to 166 knots
The 767 series airplanes are classified as Category “C” or “D” airplanes, depending upon the maximum landing weight.
When must you execute a missed approach based on an unstable approach?
An approach that becomes unstabilized below 1,000 feet AFE in IMC or below 500 feet AFE in VMC requires an immediate go-around
What is the format in the FMC for a threshold crossing altitude?
Threshold crossing altitude normally require entry of a four-digit number. Example: enter 80 feet as 0080
Why do we not use approach speed contraints in the FMC?
When on final approach, VNAV should be used with speed intervention active to reduce workload. Adding speed constraints to the final approach waypoints is normally not needed and causes extra workload without providing any safety benefit
What effect does temperaure have on FMC GP angle?
The coded GP angle is steeper than normal in temperatures warmer than ISA standard and is shallower than normal in temperatures colder than ISA standard.
If you need an additional navaids on a VNAV approach, what should you do?
Do not manually build the approach or add waypoints to the procedure. If additional waypoint references are desired, use the FIX page.
When buildiong a VNAV GP to the runway, what altitude should you place for the runway crossing threshold?
50' above runway elevation
Technique 1 for descent to MDA(H) using the FMC:
• the most accurate technique is to monitor the VNAV path deviation indication on the map display and adjust descent rate to maintain the airplane on the appropriate path. This technique requires the path to be defined appropriately on the legs page and that the header GPx.xx is displayed for the missed approach point or there is a RWxx, MXxx, or named waypoint on the legs page with an altitude constraint which corresponds to approximately 50 ft. threshold crossing height. When this method is used, crews must ensure compliance with each minimum altitude constraint on the final approach segment (step-down fixes)
Technique 2 for descent to MDA(H) using the FMC:
• select a descent rate that places the altitude range arc at or near the step-down fix or visual descent point (VDP). This technique requires the step-down fix or MDA(H) to be set in the MCP and may be difficult to use in turbulent conditions. See the Visual Descent Point section for more details on determining the VDP
Technique 3 for descent to MDA(H) using the FMC:
using 300 feet per NM for a 3° path, determine the desired HAA which corresponds to the distance in NM from the runway end. The PM can then call out recommended altitudes as the distance to the runway changes (Example: 900 feet - 3 NM, 600 feet - 2 NM, etc.). The descent rate should be adjusted in small increments for significant deviations from the nominal path.
Recommended use of FD's on circiling approach when intercepting the visual profile?
Leaving MDA(H), disengage the autopilot and disconnect the autothrottle. After intercepting the visual profile, cycle both F/D to OFF, and select the PM F/D to ON. This eliminates unwanted commands for the PF and allows continued F/D guidance for the PM in the event of a go-around when pitch or roll mode is changed. Complete the landing
What can you expect from an automatic go-around at 50 ft?
- During an automatic go-around initiated at 50 feet, approximately 30 feet of altitude is lost. If touchdown occurs after a go-around is initiated, the go-around continues. Observe that the autothrottles apply go-around thrust or manually apply go-around thrust as the airplane rotates to the go-around attitude.
- NOTE: An automatic go-around cannot be initiated after touchdown or if the airplane is below 5 feet radio altitude for more than 2 seconds
Go-Around after Touchdown
If a go-around is initiated before touchdown and touchdown occurs, continue with normal go-around procedures. The F/D go-around mode will continue to provide go-around guidance commands throughout the maneuver. If a go-around is initiated after touchdown but before thrust reverser selection, auto speedbrakes retract and autobrakes disarm as thrust levers are advanced. The F/D go-around mode will not be available until go-around is selected after becoming airborne. Once reverse thrust is initiated following touchdown, a full stop landing must be made. If an engine stays in reverse, safe flight is not possible
Should you use a 2-bar VASI?
The use of a two bar VASI system is not recommended. A two bar VASI system provides a visual aim point that results in main landing gear touchdown at, or very near, the end of the runway threshold.
Flare and touchdown -
When the threshold passes under the airplane nose and out of sight, shift the visual sighting point to the far end of the runway. Shifting the visual sighting point assists in controlling the pitch attitude during the flare. Maintaining a constant airspeed and descent rate assists in determining the flare point. Initiate the flare when the main gear is approximately 20 feet above the runway by increasing pitch attitude approximately 2° - 3°. This slows the rate of descent
Bounced Landing Recovery
If the airplane should bounce, hold or re-establish a normal landing attitude and add thrust as necessary to control the rate of descent. Thrust need not be added for a shallow bounce or skip. When a high, hard bounce occurs, initiate a go-around. Apply go-around thrust and use normal go-around procedures. Do not retract the landing gear until a positive rate of climb is established because a second touchdown may occur during the go-around.
Normal Touchdown Attitude
With proper airspeed control and thrust management, touchdown occurs at no less than VREF - 5. The illustration also shows that touchdown at a speed below normal touchdown speed, in this case VREF 30 - 10 knots, seriously reduces aft fuselage-runway clearance
Effect of speedbrakes on landing -
Unless speedbrakes are raised after touchdown, braking effectiveness may be reduced initially as much as 60%, since very little weight is on the wheels and brake application may cause rapid antiskid modulation
Effect of use of reverse thrust upon landing -
- Immediate initiation of reverse thrust at main gear touchdown and full reverse thrust allow the autobrake system to reduce brake pressure to the minimum
- level. Since the autobrake system senses deceleration and modulates brake pressure accordingly, the proper application of reverse thrust results in reduced braking for a large portion of the landing roll.
Maintain reverse thrust as required, up to maximum, until the airspeed approaches 60 knots. At this point start reducing the reverse thrust so that the reverse thrust levers are moving down at a rate commensurate with the deceleration rate of the airplane. The thrust levers should be positioned to reverse idle by taxi speed, then to full down after the engines have decelerated to idle.
When are slideslip only (zero crab) landings not recommended?
Sideslip only (zero crab) landings are not recommended with crosswind components in excess of 26 knots. This recommendation ensures adequate ground clearance and is based on maintaining adequate control margin.
Zero crab landings are also not recommended on dry runways.