1. What is the purpose of the Principles of design
    Principles of design are guidelines that help artists and designers combine the elements of design effectively
  2. What are the principles of design?
    balance, unity, contrast, emphasis, pattern, movement, and rhythm.
  3. How do you measure the effectiveness of the principles of design?
    When used properly, principles of design organize the parts of a design so that an artwork clearly communicates an artist's message or intention.
  4. What media are principles of design used in?
    All media-from painting to architecture, to clothing design.
  5. True or False. Principles of design are not binding, but are there to help you make choices: you may study, modify, or juggle them as you wish. You might think of them as recipes that have worked for a long time for many people
  6. What is visual balance and why is so important?
    Visual balance is the way that the different parts of a composition relate to one another. When dealing with issues of design and organization, artists always consider visual balance because it is so basic to art.
  7. What are the four most important types of visual balance?
    symmetrical, approximate, asymmetrical, and radial balance.
  8. What is symmetrical balance
    The organization of the parts of a composition such that each side of a vertical axis mirrors the other. When a design displays symmetrical balance, it is exactly the same on both sides.
  9. What are other names for symmetrical balance
    bilateral, two-sided, or formal balance
  10. Compositions that display symmetry tend to be ___, ____, and ____.
    stable, dignified, and calm
  11. What type of design often uses symmetrical balance
  12. What type of balance does the Taj Mahal exemplify?
  13. What is the Taj Mahal
    A monument. It contains the tomb of Mumtaz Mahal. It was built by her husband Shah Jahan after she died suddenly in 1630. It represents ( by its form and location) a description found in the Koran: "the Throne of God above the gardens of paradise on the Day of judgement".
  14. What is approximate symmetry?
    The organization of the parts of a composition such that each side of a vertical axis contains similar but not identical, shapes or forms
  15. What is the simplest way to achieve balance in a design?
    symmetrical balance
  16. What are the cons to symmetrical balance?
    it can be monotonous and may fail to hold a viewer's interest for long. Because one side repeats the other, the effect is usually static.
  17. Slight differences between one side of a composition and the other, (just like in a human's face) makes the composition ________________.
    More interesting to look at.
  18. How do symmetrical and approximate symmetry differ?
    With Symmetrical balance both halves are exactly the same and as such the effect may be static or monotonous. With approximate symmetry the two sides of the composition are varied. they offer enough differences to hold the viewers attention, but the halves are similar enough to provide a sense of balance.
  19. What is asymmetrical balance?
    The organization of the parts of a composition such that the sides of a vertical axis are visually equal without being identical.
  20. What is another name for asymmetrical balance?
    informal balance
  21. How is asymmetrical balance more complex than symmetrical balance/
    Asymmetrical balance often contrasts elements that at first glance may not seem to be balanced. It is more difficult to achieve. It is something that the viewer senses in a composition; it cannot be measured. There is no center line or pairing of mirror images
  22. What was Piet Mondrian most known for?
    He was considered to be one of the most influential pioneers of abstract art. He placed a lot of emphasis on asymmetrical balance.
  23. Define Radial balance
    A composition that is based on a circle, with the design radiating from a central point. If the parts of a design turn around a central point, the design is radial balance
  24. How is radial balance similar to and different from symmetrical balance?
    they are generally orderly and repetitious, and one side may be much like the other. But because the various elements in radial designs form a circular pattern, they often convey greater sense of movement or energy.
  25. True or False. As they do with symmetrical balance, artists often modify radial balance to add greater visual interest or tension. They may vary the number, direction, or arrangement of the designs parts. Even with modifications, however, most radial designs tend to create an overall decorative effect.
  26. Why might an artist wish to create an approximate symmetrical or asymmetrical design instead of a symmetrical one?
    Both approximate symmetry and asymmetry can break the possible monotony of a symmetrically balanced composition. Also, asymmetry can produce a sense of excitement and interest often not found in symmetrical designs
  27. What type of balance does the design of the Taj Mahal display? Where is the Taj Mahal located? Why was it built? What is an iwan? Locate iwans in this structure.
    The Taj Mahal is in Agra, India. it exhibits symmetrical balance. It was built as a tomb. An iwan is a vaulted opening with an arched portal. There is a large central iwan with two stories of iwans on each side in the Taj Mahal.
  28. Experiments in what art style led Mondrian to focus on a new style called De Stijl? Describe the restrictions that he placed on himself as he painted in the nonrepresentational De Stijl style.
    Experiments in Cubism led Mondrian to focus on De Stijl. He restricted himself to a palette of neutrals and primary colors, to vertical and horizontal lines, and to square or rectangular shapes.
  29. What is visual weight and how does it correspond with balance
    • To understand balance, think of the balance beam. When objects are of equal weight, they are in balance. If you have several small items on one side, they can be balanced by a large object on the other side. Visual balance works in much the same way. It can be affected not only by the size of objects, but also their value (ie. lightness or
    • darkness
  30. What balance does the Cathedral of Saint-Pierre in Angouleme, France have?
  31. Portrait of the children of Charles I, Anthony Van Dyck is an example what type of balance?
    approximate symmetry
  32. How is asymmetrical balance achieved?
    Asymmetrical balance occurs when several smaller items on one side are balanced by a large item on the other side, or smaller items are placed further away from the center of the screen than larger items. One darker item may need to be balanced by several lighter items.
  33. why is asymmetrical balance more difficult to achieve
    Although asymmetrical balance may appear more casual and less planned, it is usually harder to use because the artist must plan the layout very carefully to ensure that it is still balanced. An unbalanced page or screen creates a feeling of tension, as if the page or screen might tip, or things might slide off the side, just as the unbalanced balance beam would tip to one side.
  34. What are the ways to achieve balance asymmetrically?
    color, value, shape, position, texture, eye direction.
  35. By color
    Our eyes are drawn by color. Small areas of vibrant color can be used to balance larger areas of more neutral colors. The vivid red skirt on the left is balanced by the larger neutral pink dress.
  36. By value
    Value refers to the darkness or lightness of objects. Black against white has a much stronger contrast than gray against white. To balance these two colors, you would need a larger area of gray to balance the stronger value of black.
  37. By shape
    • Large flat areas without much detail can be balanced by smaller irregularly shaped objects since the eye is led towards the more intricate shape.
    • The front dancer in this painting by Degas stands out in intricate detail compared to the large blurry area behind her.
  38. by position
    Using a balance beam, a larger weight closer to the center point can be balanced by a lighter weight further away from the center. This is the basis for balance by position. Sometimes larger elements on one side of the page can be balanced by a smaller element that is positioned by itself at the far end of the other side of the page. This is a very tricky type of asymmetrical balance that often ends up looking out of balance.
  39. by texture
    Smaller areas with interesting textures (variegated light and dark, or random fluctuations) can balance larger areas with smoother, un-textured looks.
  40. eye direction
    Your eye can be led to a certain point in a picture depending on how the elements are arranged. If the people in a picture are looking in a certain direction, your eye will be led there as well. Elements in a picture, such as triangles or arrows, will also lead your eye to look to a certain point and maintain the balance of a picture. Look how the eye direction of the dancers and musicians in this painting by Seurat lead your eye to the small gaslights which provide a focal point in this painting.
  41. Le Chahut, by Georges Seurat, what does this exemplify
    eye direction, asymmetry
  42. Dancers practicing at the Bar by Edgar Degas, what does it exemplify
    position, asymmetry
  43. L'etoile, Edgar Degas, what does it exemplify?
    Shape, asymmetry
  44. small, dark apple next to the large gray apple: what does it exemplify
    value, asymmetry
  45. The Tahitian Women on the beach, Paul Gauguin, what does it exemplify
    color, assymetrical
Card Set
Principles of Design: Balance