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  1. Protons
    • positive particles inside the nucleus
    • Mass is about 2,000 times that of an electron
  2. Atomic Number
    • number of protons in the nucleus
    • all atoms of the same element have the same atomic number
  3. Neutrons
    • have no charge
    • about the same mass as a proton
  4. Isotopes
    • an element that has the same number of protons, but different masses
    • one of two or more atoms with the same atomic number but with different numbers of neutrons
    • A lack of necessary neutrons makes a nucleus unstable
  5. Most Famous Isotope
    • 235U - uranium
    • creates nuclear energy and weapons
  6. mass number
    • sum of the protons and neutrons in an atom
    • changes for different isotopes of an element
    • ex: C-12 (6p+6n) C-13 (6p+7n)
  7. atomic number
    • number of protons
    • same for all atoms of an element
    • Carbon (C) atomic number = 6 (6p)
  8. atomic mass
    • average mass of atoms of the element
    • usually not a whole number
    • atomic mass of carbon = 12.011
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