Human anatomy 5

  1. fibrous pericardium
    Dense connective tissue this layer of the pericardium is attached to the diaphram and the base of the great vessels.
  2. Serous Pericardium
    2nd part of the pericardium thats the inner portion of a thin double latered serous membeane which is divided into 2 layers: the parietal and viseral layer. these layers reflect (fold back) along the greater vessels, where these layers become continues with one another.
  3. Parietal layer
    of the serous pericardium that lines the inner surface of the fibrous pericardium.
  4. Viseral layer
    if the serous pericardium also called the epicardium that covers the outside of the heart.
  5. Epicardium
    outtermost layer and is also know as the viseral layer or the serous periardium. It's composed of serous membrane and areolar connective tissue. As we age more fat is deposited here so it becomes thicker and more fatty.
  6. Myocardium
    is the middle layer of the heart wall and is composed of cardiac muscle tissue. It's the thickest layer of the 3 heart wall layers. This is where the myocardial infractions occur (heart attack).
  7. Endocardium
    the internal surface of the heart and the external surfaces of the heart valves are cover byed this. It's made up of simple squamous epithelium called Endothelium and a layer of areolar connective tissue.
  8. intercalated discs
    neighboring cardiac muscle cells in the walls of heart chambers that have formed specilized cell to cell contacts call this. Which are electrically and mechanically link the cells together and permit the immediate passage of muscle impulses. Has japs to increase ion flow so that the heart can continully keep moving and not fatigue.
  9. Desmosomes
    prevent cardiac muscle cells from pulling apart. there is a numerous amount in intercalated disk.
  10. Compare and contrast cardiac vs skeletal muscle
    Cardiac- short, 1-2 nuclei in center, cells joined by intercellular junctions in intercalated disks, less sarcoplasmic reticulum then skeletal, more mitchondria than the skeletal (see table 22.3 pg. 675)
  11. The right atrium
    recieves vienous blood from the circulation of the heart muscle itself. The interatiorial septum forms a thin wall between the right and left atria.
  12. right atrioventricular valve
    also called the tricuspid valve since it has three triangular cusps. deoxygentated veinous blood flows from the right atrium through the right atropventricular opening when this valve is open, into the right ventricle.
  13. Right ventricle
    Recieves deoxygenated veinous blood from the right atrium.
  14. Pulmonary semilunar valve
    which marks the end of the right ventricle and the entry into the pulmonary trunk. Semilunar valves are located within the walls are both ventricles immediatly beofre the connection of the ventricle to the pulmonary trunk and aorta.
  15. left atrium
    once gas exchange occurs in the lungs, the oxygenated blood travels through the pulmonary viens to the left atrium. Seperating the left atrium from the left ventricle is the left atrioventricular opening.
  16. Left atrioventricular valve
    also called the bicuspid since it has 2 triangular cusps. Oxygenated blood flows from the left atrium through the left atrioventicular opening.
  17. left ventricle
    is typically 3x's thicker then the right ventricular wall. it has to create more pressure since the blood that leaves it has to circulate the rest of hte body.
  18. aortic semilunar valve
    marks the end of the left ventricle and the entrance into the aorta.
  19. Papillary muscles
    the right ventricle typically has 3 cone shaped muscular projections which anchor numerous thin strands of collegen fibers called CHORDAE TENDINEAE. They attach to the lower surface of cusps of the right AV valve and prevent the value from everting and flipping into the atrium when the right venticle is contracting.
  20. Electrocardiogram
    also called EKG collects electrical signals and charts them. the provide an accurate comprehensive assessment of the electrical activity of the heart.
  21. P Wave
    generated when the impulse originated in the SA node depolorizes the cells of the atria.
  22. the QRS complex
    identifies the beginning of depolarization of the ventricles. simultaneously the atria repolarizes, however the repolarization signal is masked by the electrical activity of the ventricals.
  23. T Wave
    is a small rounded peak that denotes ventricular repolarization.
  24. autorhythmicity
    the heart exhibits, meaning that the heart itself (not the external nerves) is responsible for initiating a heartbeat. Certain cardiac muscles are specilized to initiate and conduct impulses to the contractile muscle cells of the myocardium. Collectivelly, therese specialized cells are called the hearts conducting system.
  25. Systole
    the contraction of a heart chamber. during this perios the contraction of the myocardium forces blood either into another chamber or into a blood vessel.
  26. Diastole
    the relaxation phase of a heart chamber. During this period between contraction phases, the myocardium of each chamber relaxes and the chamber fills with blood.
Card Set
Human anatomy 5
Circulatory learning objective 5