1. Heterotroph
    An organism that relies upon organic compounds for its carbon & energy needs.
  2. Autotroph
    A microorganism that requires only inorganic nutrients and whose sole source of carbon is carbon dioxide
  3. Phototrophs
    Microbes that use photosynthesis to feed.
  4. Chemotrophs
    Organism that oxidizes compounds to feed on nutrients.
  5. Photoautotrophs
    An organism that utilizes light for its energy and carbon dioxide chiefly for its carbon needs.
  6. Chemoautotrophs
    An organism that relies upon inorganic chemicals for its energy & carbon dioxide for its carbon. A.K.A. chemolithotroph
  7. Lithoautotrophs
    Bacteria that rely on inorganic minerals to supply their nutritional needs.
  8. Methanogens
    Microbes that produce methane gas.
  9. Chemoheterotrophs
    Microorganisms that derive their nutritional needs from organic compounds.
  10. Saprobes
    A microbe that decomposes organic remains from dead organisms. A.K.A. saprophyle or saprotroph
  11. Parasites
    An organism that lives on or within another organism (the host), from which it obtains nutrients & enjoys protection. Parasite produce some degree of harm in the host.
  12. Pathogens
    Any agent, usually a virus, bacterium, fungus, protozoan, or helminth, that causes disease.
  13. Diffusion
    The dispersal of molecules, ions, or microscopic particles propelled down a concentration gradient by spontaneous random motion to achieve a uniform distribution.
  14. Passive Transport
    Nutrient transport method that follows basic physical laws & doesn't require direct energy input from the cell.
  15. Osmosis
    The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane in the direction of lower water concentration.
  16. Isotonic
    2 solutions having the same osmotic pressure such that, when separated by a semipermeable membrane there's no net movement of solvent in either direction.
  17. Hypotonic
    Having a lower osmotic pressure than a reference solution.
  18. Hypertonic
    Having a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution.
  19. Facilitated Diffusion
    The passive movement of a substance across a plasma membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration utilizing specialized carrier proteins.
  20. Active Transport
    Nutrient transport method that requires carrier proteins in the membranes of the living cells and the expenditure of energy.
  21. Group Translocation
    A form of active transport in which the substance being transported is altered during transfer across a plasma membrane.
  22. Endocytosis
    The process whereby solid & liquid materials are taken into the cell through membrane invagination & engulfment into a vesicle.
  23. Phagocytosis
    A type of endocytosis in which the cell membrane actively engulfs large particles or cells into vesicles. Phagocyte-a cell specialized for doing this.
  24. Pinocytosis
    The engulfment, or endocytosis, of liquids by entensions of the cell membrane.
  25. Symbiosis
    An intimate association between individuals from two species; used as a synonym for mutualism.
  26. Mutualism
    Organisms living in an obligatory, but mutually beneficial relationship.
  27. Commensalism
    An unequal relationship in which one species derives benefit without harming the other.
  28. Parasitism
    Parasite is dependent & benefits from host. The host is harmed.
  29. Biofilms
    A complex association that arises from microorganisms growing together & interacting on the surface of a habitat.
  30. Binary Fission
    The formation of two new cells of approximately equal size as the result of parent cell division.
  31. Generation Time
    Time required for a complete fission cycle-from parent cell to 2 new daughter cells. A.K.A. Doubling Time
  32. Exponential
    Pertaining to the use of exponents, numbers that are typically written as superscripts to indicate how many times a factor is to be multiplied. Exponents are used in scientific notation to render large numbers into small workable quantities.
  33. Growth Curve
    A graphical rep. of the change in population size over time. This graph has 4 periods known as lag phase, exponential or log phase, stationary phase, and death phase.
  34. Lag Phase
    The early phase of population growth during which no signs of growth occur.
  35. Exponential Phase
    A period during which the curve increases geometrically. It will continue as long as cells have adequate nutrients & the environment is favorable.
  36. Stationary Phase
    Survival mode in which cells either stop growing or grow very slowly.
  37. Death Phase
    End of cell growth die to lack of nutrition, depletion of environment, & accumultaion of wastes. Population of cells begins to die.
Card Set
Words for micro test 2