Unit 5 & 6

  1. Meiosis consists of __ cell divisions with __ phases which are:
    2, 4

    • Meiosis I
    • Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I, Telophase I

    • Meiosis II
    • Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II, Telophase II
  2. Mitosis creates __ ______ daughter cells
    ______ to the parent cell.
    • 2
    • Diploid
    • Identical
  3. Meiosis creates __ _____ daughter cells ______ to the parent cell.
    • 4
    • haploid
    • NOT identical
  4. Crossing Over
    allows for a variation. Chromosomes touch each other to allow for genetic diversity. Occurs in Prophase 1.
  5. Purpose of Meiosis
    to cut chromosome number in half. Happens in metaphase or anaphase 1. 1 splits chromosomes, 2 splits chromatids. Sex cells
  6. Alleles:
    different forms of the same genes. Dominant and recessive forms. Dominant gets expressed if present.
  7. Genotype
    collection of genes.
  8. Phenotype
    genes that get expressed
  9. Heterozygous
    has one dominant and one recessive
  10. Punnet square
    determine genotypic and phenotypic ratios.
  11. Sex linked disease:
    hemophilia and color blindness. Usually carried on X, which makes males more vulnerable.
  12. Autosomal
    not a sex linked chromosome.
  13. Mutation:
    • change in DNA. Nucleotide sequence gets changed. Caused by radiation,
    • viruses, chemicals, replication errors. Mutating DNA can cause medical
    • disorders because it makes the wrong protein which isn't what your body
    • needs.
  14. Nondisjunction
    homologous chromosomes didn't split which results in trisomy or monosomy. not normal.
  15. Karyotype
    Chart of human chromosomes organized into pairs
  16. Monosomy
    • 45 chromosomes
    • missing a chromosome
  17. Trisomy
    • 47 chromosomes
    • extra chromosome
  18. Edward Syndrome
    Trisomy 18
  19. Trisomy 21
    Down Syndrome: Most survivable
  20. Albinism
    has no pigment because no melanin
  21. Sickle cell anemia :
    red blood cells are sickle shaped and clump and clot, autosomal recessive disease.
  22. PKU
    is also autosomal recessive disease that you cannot process phenoalonen?
  23. Autosomal Recessive
    Albinism, Sickle cell anemia, PKU
  24. Skeletal system
    for support, movement, protection, blood cell production, mineral reservoir
  25. Integumentary system:
    thermoregulation, sensation, vitamin D,
  26. Red bone marrow
    where blood cells are made, mainly in children
  27. Yellow Bone Marrow
    mainly in adults, made of fat
  28. ephiphisis
    is flaired end of long bone
  29. Diaphysis
    is shaft of long bone
  30. Medulary cavity
    inside/middle of long bone
  31. Periostium
    Covering around outside bone
  32. Atricular cartiliage
    on ends of long bone
  33. Trebekule
    on spongy bone to increase strength of bone without increasing weight.
  34. Epiphyseal plate
    for growing
  35. Intermembrous:
    flat bones of skull.
  36. Indrocondrial:
    hyaline cartiliage
  37. Osteoblast
    build bones, blood CA decreases,
  38. osteoclasts
    destroy bone, blood CA increases.
  39. Calcitonin
    lowers blood CA by stimulating osteoblast
  40. PTH
    increases blood CA by stimulating osteoclast
  41. 4 types of membrane:
    • 1. CUTANEOUS
    • 2. MUCOUS
    • 3. SEROUS
    • 4. SYNOVIAL
  42. mucous
    is passageways to outside world
    • In Epidermis.
    • Produce sebum (oil)
    • open into a hair follicle
  44. Merocrine Glands
    make sweat
  45. Apocrine
    • Ducts open into hair follicles instead of skin surface
    made of epithelial cells, keratinocytes
  47. Stratum basale
    Deep layer of Epidermis
  48. Stratum spinosum
    Middle layer of Epidermis
  49. Stratum corneum
    Outer layer of Epidermis
  50. osteon
    basic structural unit of compact bone
  51. Rickets:
    childhood disease, not enough vitamin D/ calcium. Bones bow and deform
  52. Osteomalacia:
    adult form of Rickets
  53. osteoporosis
    Osteoclast outdo osteoblast
  54. types of joints:
    • FIBROUS,
  55. Meniscus
    articular pads
  56. bursa
    fluid filled sac between tendon and bone
  57. ligament
    Connective tissue that connects bone to bone
  58. tendon
    Connective tissue that connects muscle to bone:
  59. sprain:
    torn ligament or tendon
  60. strain:
    stretched ligament or tendon
    chronic wear and tear
  62. synovial joints:
    • ball and socket
    • Hindge
    • Condular
    • Pivot
    • Sadel
    • Plane
  63. ball and socket:
    shoulder, hip.
  64. Hindge:
    elbow or knee.
  65. Condular:
    radial carpal or metacarpal phalangeal.
  66. Pivot:
    radial ulnar.
  67. Sadel:
    base of thumb, trapezealmetacarpal.
  68. Plane
    carpal bones, articular process of vertebrae
Card Set
Unit 5 & 6
Unit 5 & 6