What three layers are part of the basement membrane?
basal lamina: lamina lucida
basal lamina: lamina densa
(epithelium and connective tissue)
The basement membrane is the ______ between epithelium and ________ _________.
The basal lamina produced by epithelium has what two layers?
lamina lucida: clear layer
lamina densa: dense layer
Tonofilaments loop into the ________ ________.
The reticular lamina is produced by the connective tissue, and consists of _________ _________ _______ that loop into the _________ lamina.
anchoring collagen fibers
What are the functions of connective tissue? (SAD)
Attach and Defense
What are the most common cells in connective tissue?
What do fibroblasts secrete?
various kinds of fibers
The fibroblast matrix consists of which three fibers?
Describe collagen fibers.
found in teeth, tendons, bone, etc
Describe elastic fibers.
able to stretch and return to original shape
found in soft palate
Describe reticular fibers.
found in embryonic structures
What is the matrix?
The intercellular substance and fibers secreted by the fibroblasts.
The matrix can create:
Soft connective tissue (most important!)
firm connective tissue: cartilage
rigid connective tissue: bone
fluid connective tissue: blood
Connective tissue proper is ______ to the epithelium. What are the two layers it has?
loose connective tissue
dense connective tissue
Loose connective tissue: cells, fibers, and intercellular substances are loosely packed with blood vessels and nerves. It extends into the epithelium making _________ _________ ________. these help to increase the surface area between the _________ and _______ tissue.
connective tissue papillae
Dense connective tissue is tightly packed tissue that consists mainly of ______ fibers which make it very strong.
What are the two specialized connective tissues?
adipose connective tissue
elastic connective tissue
What does adipose connective tissue consist of?
a lot of fat cells packed together
What is elastic connective tissue?
large number of elastic fibers for stretchy tissues
Firm connective tissue is:
Cartilage is firm and non-_______ tissue. there are no ________ ________ or _______supply.
What three things does the cartilage does?
forms the template of the skeleton (later mineralized)
cushions the bones in joints
structural support for soft tissues (i.e. ear)
What is the perichondrium?
connective tissue that surrounds the cartilage, provides the blood and nerve supply for cartilage.
****it repairs very slowly because it does not have it's own blood supply.
Chondrocytes produce ________ matrix and get caught in the matrix (similar to cementocytes).
The small space that surrounds each chondrocyte is the:
Rigid connective tissue is?
Macroscopic bone consists of:
What is bone marrow?
The innermost part of the bone where the blood cells are produced
What is endosteum?
It lines the bone marrow. Similar to perichondrium
What is cancellous bone?
Surrounds the bone marrow.
Forms a lattice called trabeculae (seen radiographically)
What is compact bone?
Surrounds the cancellous bone
Periosteum is a _______ layered connective tissue sheath that surrounds the entire bone. The outer layer contains _______ _________ and nerves. The inner layer contains bone forming cells called _________.
What is included in the microscopic bone?
Haversian canal is the canal for ________ _______ and ________.
osteocytes surround the _______ _________ and secrete matrix called _______. The osteoid will calcify in sheets called _________.
When does an osteon form?
After laying 5-20 layers of lamellae.
The osteon groups together to form:
T/F Each osteon has its own blood supply and repairs quickly
What is calcium hydroxyapatite? (same as in enamel)
What percentage is mineralized?
an inorganic substance in crystalline formation that mineralizes the bone.
50% (98% of enamel)
Fluid connective tissue is:
It consists of what three components?