ch 8 embryology

  1. What three layers are part of the basement membrane?
    • basal lamina: lamina lucida
    • basal lamina: lamina densa
    • reticular lamina
    • (epithelium and connective tissue)
  2. The basement membrane is the ______ between epithelium and ________ _________.
    • velcro
    • connective tissue
  3. The basal lamina produced by epithelium has what two layers?
    • lamina lucida: clear layer
    • lamina densa: dense layer
  4. Tonofilaments loop into the ________ ________.
    lamina lucida
  5. The reticular lamina is produced by the connective tissue, and consists of _________ _________ _______ that loop into the _________ lamina.
    • anchoring collagen fibers
    • reticular
  6. What are the functions of connective tissue? (SAD)
    • Support
    • Attach and Defense
  7. What are the most common cells in connective tissue?
  8. What do fibroblasts secrete?
    • intercellular substance
    • various kinds of fibers
  9. The fibroblast matrix consists of which three fibers?
    • Collagen fibers
    • Elastic fibers
    • Reticular fibers
  10. Describe collagen fibers.
    • very strong
    • rope-like
    • found in teeth, tendons, bone, etc
  11. Describe elastic fibers.
    • able to stretch and return to original shape
    • found in soft palate
  12. Describe reticular fibers.
    • Very fine
    • hair-like fibers
    • found in embryonic structures
  13. What is the matrix?
    The intercellular substance and fibers secreted by the fibroblasts.
  14. The matrix can create:
    • Soft connective tissue (most important!)
    • firm connective tissue: cartilage
    • rigid connective tissue: bone
    • fluid connective tissue: blood
  15. Connective tissue proper is ______ to the epithelium. What are the two layers it has?
    • deep
    • loose connective tissue
    • dense connective tissue
  16. Loose connective tissue: cells, fibers, and intercellular substances are loosely packed with blood vessels and nerves. It extends into the epithelium making _________ _________ ________. these help to increase the surface area between the _________ and _______ tissue.
    • connective tissue papillae
    • epithelium
    • connective
  17. Dense connective tissue is tightly packed tissue that consists mainly of ______ fibers which make it very strong.
  18. What are the two specialized connective tissues?
    • adipose connective tissue
    • elastic connective tissue
  19. What does adipose connective tissue consist of?
    • little matrix
    • a lot of fat cells packed together
  20. What is elastic connective tissue?
    large number of elastic fibers for stretchy tissues
  21. Firm connective tissue is:
  22. Cartilage is firm and non-_______ tissue. there are no ________ ________ or _______supply.
    • calcified
    • blood vessels
    • nerves
  23. What three things does the cartilage does?
    • forms the template of the skeleton (later mineralized)
    • cushions the bones in joints
    • structural support for soft tissues (i.e. ear)
  24. What is the perichondrium?
    • connective tissue that surrounds the cartilage, provides the blood and nerve supply for cartilage.
    • ****it repairs very slowly because it does not have it's own blood supply.
  25. Chondrocytes produce ________ matrix and get caught in the matrix (similar to cementocytes).
  26. The small space that surrounds each chondrocyte is the:
  27. Rigid connective tissue is?
  28. Macroscopic bone consists of:
    • bone marrow
    • endosteum
    • cancellous bone
    • compact bone
    • periosteum
  29. What is bone marrow?
    The innermost part of the bone where the blood cells are produced
  30. What is endosteum?
    It lines the bone marrow. Similar to perichondrium
  31. What is cancellous bone?
    • Surrounds the bone marrow.
    • Spongy
    • Forms a lattice called trabeculae (seen radiographically)
  32. What is compact bone?
    • Surrounds the cancellous bone
    • very dense
  33. Periosteum is a _______ layered connective tissue sheath that surrounds the entire bone. The outer layer contains _______ _________ and nerves. The inner layer contains bone forming cells called _________.
    • double
    • blood vessels
    • osteoblasts
  34. What is included in the microscopic bone?
    • Haversian canal
    • osteocytes
    • osteon
  35. Haversian canal is the canal for ________ _______ and ________.
    • blood vessels
    • nerves
  36. osteocytes surround the _______ _________ and secrete matrix called _______. The osteoid will calcify in sheets called _________.
    • haversian canal
    • osteoid
    • lamellae
  37. When does an osteon form?
    After laying 5-20 layers of lamellae.
  38. The osteon groups together to form:
  39. T/F Each osteon has its own blood supply and repairs quickly
  40. What is calcium hydroxyapatite? (same as in enamel)
    What percentage is mineralized?
    • an inorganic substance in crystalline formation that mineralizes the bone.
    • 50% (98% of enamel)
  41. Fluid connective tissue is:
    It consists of what three components?
    • blood
    • 1) plasma
    • 2) RBC's
    • 3) WBC's
  42. What is plasma?
    fluid substance that carries everything
  43. What do RBC's do?
    carry oxygen
  44. What do WBC's do?
    immune response
Card Set
ch 8 embryology
ch 8 embryo continued