# Chapter 6: States of Matter

 .remove_background_ad { border: 1px solid #555555; padding: .75em; margin: .75em; background-color: #e7e7e7; } .rmbg_image { max-height: 80px; } Density the mass of matter divided by its volumegreater mass greater density- directly proportionaldensity and volume are inversly proportionalD=m/v Shape is it fixed or does it take the shape of the container Compressiblity if we apply pressure, does the volume decrease? Thermal expansion how much does the volume change when heated?Review table 6:1 on pg 168 Kinetic Molecular Theory Matter is composed of small particleseach particle is in constant motion (kinetic energy)particles contain potential energy due to attractions and repulsions between themparticles move faster as the temp. increasesparticles transfer energy during a collision with no net energy changeKinetic energy (KE)= 1/2mv2(m=mass, v=valucity) Interatomic forces dipole- dipoleVan der Waal's ForcesHydrogen Bonding solids at room temp: 1. are not compressible2.have regular repeating units Two types of solids observed 1.crystalline solids- crystal latus structure2.amorphous solid- no specific shape Types of Solids 1.ionic solids2.covalent solids3.metallic solids4.molecular solids The liquid state As a result of the forces that hold a liquid together, several properties are observed1.viscosity- doesn't want to flow2.surface tension3.vapor pressure4.boiling points The Gas Laws Sinces gases are highly compressible and will expand when heated interesting relationships existthese relationships between volume (V), pressure (P), temp (T) and moles (N), are referred to as the gas law; (R)= gas law constant Gas Pressure pressure is defined as force per unit areaP=F/A; pressure= force/ area Units of Pressure 1.Atmosphere2.Torr or mmHg3.Inches of Hg4.lbs/ square inch5.kilopascals STP standard temp and pressure Standard Pressure: mm of Hg and torr 760 Standard Pressure: lbs/in2 14.7 Standard Pressure: kilopascals 101.325 Standard Pressure: atmosphere 1 conversion of standard pressure new pressure= old p (new SP/ old SP) Boyle's Law the volume of a dry gas is inversely proportional to the pressure exerted upon the gass if the temp remains the sameP1V2=P2V1 Charle's Law the volume of a dry gas is directly proportional to the Kelvin temp. if the pressure exerted upon the gas remains constantK1V2=K2V1 Combined Gas law P1V1T2=P2V2T1 Avogadro's Law equal volumes of gases at the same temp. and pressure contain an equal number of moleculesV=Kn The Ideal Gas Equation the ideal gas is a hypothetical gas whose pressure, volume, and temperature behavior is completely described by the ideal gas equationPV=nRT Dalton's Law the total pressure exerted by a mixture of different gases kept at a constant volume and temp. is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the gases in the mixturethe partial pressure is the pressure each gas would exert if it were confined done under the same temp and volume condition as the mixture*Pt=P1+P2+P3...etc. Graham's Law the rate of effusion of 2 gases is inversely proportional to the square root of their massesrate a/rate b= square root mass a/ mass b specific heat the amount of heat energy required to raise the temp of 1 gram of a substance 1 celsius unit used in specific heat calories or joules per gram celcius Specific heat of ice 0.51 cal/gram degree celcius or 2.1 J/g Specific heat of water 1.00 cal/g degree celcius or 4.18 J/g degree celcius Specific heat of steam 0.48 cal/g degree celcius or 2.00 J/g degree Heat fusion the amount of energy required to melt 1 gram of a substance (contstant temperature)for water 80 cal/g Heat Vaporization the amount of energy required to vaporize 1 gram of a substance at a constant temperaturefor water 80 cal/g .remove_background_ad { border: 1px solid #555555; padding: .75em; margin: .75em; background-color: #e7e7e7; } .rmbg_image { max-height: 80px; } Authordekupar ID42529 Card SetChapter 6: States of Matter DescriptionGas Laws; states of matter Updated2010-10-19T21:13:25Z Show Answers