TOUR2001 Lecture Nine

  1. Environmental Psychology studies the effects of:
    • Environments affect on behaviour and mental processes
    • Designs and layouts affect on human interactions and emotions
  2. Customers use ___(1)___ ____(1)___ and ____(2)___ ___(2)___ to make sense of tourism/event settings
    • 1. Spatial Clues
    • 2. Previous Experiences
  3. What can cause customers to become disorientated?
    No spatial clues
  4. How can anxiety amoung tourists be reduced?
    • Orientation aids
    • Signage
    • "you are here" maps
  5. What is the main idea of "Mehrabian & Russell's Stimulus-Response Model"?
    Feelings are a key driver of customer responses to service environments
  6. Mehrabian & Russel's Stimulus-Response Model
    Section One?
    Environemtnal Stimuli & Cognitive Responses
  7. Mehrabian & Russel's Stimulus-Response Model
    Section Two?
    Affective Response: pleasure & arousal
  8. Mehrabian & Russel's Stimulus-Response Model
    Section Three?
    • Response Behaviour: approach/avoidance (inc. time & money spent)
    • Cognitive Processes: inc. perceptions of quality & satisfaction
  9. Bitner's Servicescape Model
    • Environmental dimensions
    • Moderators - Hollistic Environment
    • Internal Responses
    • Behaviour
  10. Bittner's Servicescape Model
    Main Environment Dimensions
    • Ambient Conditions: background characteristics (noise level, music, lighting, temp, scent)
    • Spatial Layout and Functionality: Spatial (floor plan, visual landscape, furnishings, counters, equipment) Functionality (circulation paths of employees and customers, focal points and ability to support delivery)
    • Signs, Symbols & Artifacts: Objects (selection, orientaion, location and size) Explicit or implicit signals to (communicate image, help customers find way, convey rules of behaviour)
  11. Bittner's Servicescape Model
    Roles of the servicescape
    • Package
    • Facilitator
    • Socialiser
    • Differentiator
  12. Roles of the serviscape
    Conveys expectations and influences perception
  13. Roles of the servicescape
    facilitates the flow of the service delivery process

    • - provides information (how to act?)
    • - facilitates the ordering process (how does this work?)
    • - facilitates service delivery
  14. Roles of the servicescape
    faccilitates interaction between customers and employees; and customers and fellow customers
  15. Roles of the servicescape
    Sets provider apart from competition in the mind of the customer
  16. Tourism Service Environments can help....
    Tourism businesses and events to create a distinctive image and unique positiong
  17. Physical surroundings help shape...
    ...appropriate feelings and reactions in customers and employees
  18. Tourism service environments affect buyer behaviour in three ways:
    • Message-creating medium: symbolic cues to communicate the distinctive nature and quality of the service experience
    • Attention-creating medium: make servicescape stand out from competitionand attract target segments
    • Effect-creating medium: Use colours, textures, sounds, scents & spatial design to enhance desired experience
  19. Tourism Service Environments
    (Murphy, Benckendorff, Moscardo & Pearce, 2001)
    • Environmental Setting
    • Actors
    • Responses
  20. Tourism Service Environments
    Environmental Setting
    • Landscape: destination image, environment amenity, scenery & attractions, way of life, urbanisation
    • Streetscape: vegetation, layout, townscape, variety, street furniture, parking & transport
    • Servicescape: social factors (crowding, congestion, host attributes) physical and design factors (window & street displays, product variety & authenticity) Ambient factors (visual & tactile, offactory, auditory, thermal comfort)
  21. Tourism Service Environments
    • Visitor Characteristics: demographics, ethinicity, trip pattern, attitudes, motives
    • Host Characteristics: resident attitudes, employee skills, quality of life
  22. Tourism Service Environments
    • Visitor Responses: emotion, satisfaction, length of stay, WOM, expenditure
    • Host Responses: mood, commitment, effort, support, friendliness, service quality
  23. What are the two main physical & design factors?
    Servicescapes and Other tangibles
  24. Physical Design Factors
    What falls under "Servicescapes"
    • Facility exterior - exterior design, signage parking landscape, surrounding environment
    • Facility interior - interior design, equipment, signage, layout, air quality/temp, sound/music/lighting/scent
  25. Physical Design Factors
    What falls under "Other Tangibles"
    • business cards
    • stationery
    • billing statements
    • reports
    • employee dress
    • uniforms
    • brochures
    • web pages
    • virtual servicescape
  26. Ambient Factors
    Ambient envioronment is composed of...
    ...hundreds of design elements and details that must work together to create the experience
  27. Ambient Factors include:
    • lighting and colour schemes
    • size and shape perceptions
    • sounds such as noise and music
    • temperature
    • scents
  28. Ambient Factors
    Scents can be used to...
    solicit emotional, physiological & behavioural responses
  29. Ambient Factors: Scent
    Psychological effect of Eucalyptus
    Stimulating and energising
  30. Ambient Factors: Scent
    Psychological effect of Lavender
    Relaxing and calming
  31. Ambient Factors: Scent
    Psychological effect of Lemon
    Soothing energy levels
  32. Ambient Factors: Scent
    Psychological effect of Black Pepper
    Balancing peoples emotions
  33. Signs Symbols Artifacts
    What do these communicate?
    • the business/events' image
    • help customers find way
  34. Visitor Orientation
    Techniques in assisting visitor orientation
    • Handheld maps
    • Fixed location maps
    • Directional Signs
    • Information Desks
    • Roving Guides
  35. Visitor Orientation
    What is cognitive mapping? What are the two ways in which the term is used?
    "The mental processing of spatial information"

    • - maps that people have in their heads (mental pictures)
    • - A sketched map that people reproduce when asked to illustrate their mental picture of a place
  36. Visitor Orientation
    Key components of cognitive maps:
    • Landmarks
    • Paths
    • Nodes
    • Districts
    • Edges
  37. Visitor Orientation
    Characteristics of successful cognitive maps:
    • maps should highlight distinctive/key landmarks/key paths or routes
    • align maps to match the users perspective
    • maps should highlight important or comonly used features and facilities
    • place text on map (opposed to legends)
    • use colour
  38. Special Interactions
    What are some positive views of other tourists?
    • Potential close friend - friendly contact, learn about/from, learn other culture
    • Travel Companion - partner for activities, socialise
    • Helper - source of info, share costs, lend hand
    • Security Guard - look after possessions, prevent unwanted contacts
    • Stimulation - improve atmosphere, excitement
  39. Special Interactions
    What is a neutral view of other tourists?
    Background scenery - just there, no impact
  40. Special Interactions
    What are some negative views of other tourists?
    • Stranger - minor discomfort, something unfamiliar
    • Disturber - noise source, invades privacy, causes conflict, culture shock contributor
    • Competitor - for accommodation, tickets, space, access to ppl and setting
  41. Social interactions: Crowding
    Factors effecting perceptions of overcrowding:
    • Goal related dimensions
    • Beahvioural dimensions
    • Physical dimensions
    • Expectations brought to the setting
    • Extent of crowding that prevails at place of origin
  42. Social interactions: Crowding
    Japanese and western preferrences in natural settings, why?
    • Japanese: prefer presence of moderate to large number of others however are conscious of presence of other japanese as desire to escape cultural expectations
    • Westerners: prefer fewer people in natural settings but no preference with respect to nationality of others
  43. Social Interactions Crowding
    2 Aims of crowd management
    • Enhance the on-site experience
    • Protect resources
  44. Social interactions: Crowding
    Techniques of crowd management
    • Quotas, limit numbers
    • Limit duration of visit
    • Limit opening occasions
    • Pulsing visitors through a facility
    • Create zones with clear expectations about behaviour
  45. Social interactions Queues
    Management issues related to queues
    • Psychological information needs
    • Time perceptions
    • Physical needs
    • Sociability of queues
  46. Social Interactions Queues
    Management solutions to potential problems in queues:
    • Keep people active & amused (incorporate into the action)
    • Look after people's physical needs (shade/seating/water/toilets)
    • Keep people informed (wait time)
    • Queue width (facilitate conversation/childrens needs)
  47. Visitor Conflicts
    • Intensity of activity and focus of participants
    • Contrasting user groups and expectation
    • Status
    • Relationship with site - sense of ownership/respect
  48. Visitor Conflicts
    Manifestations of conflicts:
    • Negative attitude toward others
    • Vandalism
    • Overcharging
  49. Visitor Conflicts
    Can be managed through:
    • Careful management of cueues
    • Effective use of quota systems
    • Availability of substitute experiences
Card Set
TOUR2001 Lecture Nine
notes for quiz 3