VISCERAL HUMP OF A MULLUSCS:
DORSAL OR POSTERIOR?
NAME 6 ORGANS THAT ARE PART OF IT.
2 MOLLUSCS THAT HAVE A CLOSED CIRCULATORY SYSTEM?
SQUID AND OCTOPUS
DO MOST MULLUSCA HAVE A OPEN CIRCULATORY SYSTEM?
SQUID & OCTOPUS ARE CLOSED SYSTEM.
IN THE MOLLUSCS THE Mantle or ----- is a sheath of skin surrounding
soft parts of the animal.
IN MOLLUSCS HOW IS THE Mantle or pallium FORMED?
It is formed by outgrowths of the dorsal body wall
T OR F?
IN MOLLUSCS The mantle is equipped with sensory receptors for sampling
IN MOLLUSCS DOES THE MANTLE FUNCTIONS IN GAS EXCHANGE?
IN MOLLSCS, WHERE ARE THE RESPIRATORY ORGANS?
IN MOLLUSCS, GIVE 4 DETAILS ABOUT THE MANTLE CAVITY.
Continual water currents bring in food, oxygen, flushes out waste, carries reproductive products out into the environment
Houses respiratory organs (gills or lungs) which develop from mantle
Mantle and mantle cavity provide jet propulsion for locomotion in squids and octopus
Withdraw head and foot into mantle cavity which is protected by shell
IN MOLLUSCS WHAT IS THE MAIN ORGAN FOR EXCRETION?
Metanephridia = type of nephridium which opens into the coelom
IN MOLLUSCS, WHAT REGION IS THE RESPIRATION AND CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS LOCATED?
DORSAL VISCERAL MASS
IN MOLLUSCS, Several pairs of ganglia with
connecting nerve cord ARE KNOWN AS?
Many mollusks have free-swimming larvae
called --------- that emerge from eggs.
THE REPRODUCTION OF MOLLUSCS.
Most are dioecious;
some are hermaphroditic
THE LARGEST AND MOST SUCCESSFUL CLASS OF MOLLUSCS
WHAT CLASS IS THE ONLY MULLUSKS TO SHOW TORSION?
Basically bilaterally symmetrical but due to torsion
(a twisting process that occurs in the veliger (larval) stage) the visceral mass becomes asymmetrical.
IN THE Class Gastropoda, Torsion moves the mantle cavity from
---- TO ------
posterior to anterior
DO CEPHALOPODS AND SOME SNAILS HAVE FREE SWIMMING LARVAE?
Cephalopods, some snails, and some bivalves have no
free-swimming larvae, instead the juveniles hatch from eggs
Class: Gastropoda, WHAT DO THE LITTLE GUYS EAT?
herbivores (algae), scavengers, carnivores; use radula, for most feeding styles, as a drill or
Class: Gastropoda Excretory system?
single kidney (nephridium)
Class: Gastropoda Respiration.
gills (ctenidium) in water forms,
gills are located in the mantle cavity;
lungs in land forms (pulmonates)
Class: Gastropoda REPRODUCTION
dioecious and monoecious forms
Some gastropods have a primitive form of reproduction –discharge sperm and ova into sea water where fertilization occurs
Most gastropods have an advanced form of reproduction with internal fertilization
NAME 4 SENSE ORGANS OF THE Class: Gastropoda.
Mussels,clams, scallops, oysters, shipworms
Class: Pelecypoda or Bivalvia
IN Class: Pelecypoda NAME THE HINGE PARTS.
Hinge ligament causes shell to open
Adductor muscle causes shell to close
WHAT OYSTER DO JAPANESE USE FOR THEIR PEARL CULTURE?
Meleagrina is an oyster used by Japanese
for their pearl culture
A PEARL IS ACTUALLY AN IRRITANT TO THE OYSTER,
WHAT IS SECRETED AROUND IT IN THE OYSTER?
Nacre is secreted around irritant
Class: Pelecypoda OLDEST PART OF THE SHELL IS CALLED?
The umbo is the oldest part of the shell
Grows in concentric circles
Class: Pelecypoda HOW IS THE FOOT ATTACHED TO THE VISCERAL MASS?
Class: Pelecypoda WATER EXITS THE SHELL HERE.
Excurrent aperture or siphon (dorsal)
Class: Pelecypoda WATER ENTERS THE SHELL HERE.
Incurrent aperture or siphon (ventral) - water enters here by
way of ciliary action – brings food and oxygen in
IN Class: Pelecypoda WHAT 2 ORGANS ARE INVOLVED IN GAS EXCHANGE?
Gills and mantle are involved in gas exchange
Class: Pelecypoda DIET?
Class: Pelecypoda SEXUALLITY?
Reproduction usually dioecious
Marine bivalves – external fertilization
Freshwater clams – internal fertilization
T OR F
Class: Pelecypoda HAVE A 3 CHAMBERED HEART?
WHAT CLASS IS KNOWN AS "HEAD-FOOTED"?
WHO IS THE MOST ADVANCED CLASS IN THE MOLLUSCS?
Squid,octopus, nautilus, cuttlefish
DESCRIBE THE STEPS ON LOCOMOTION
Muscular foot is attached anteroventrally to the visceral mass
Foot extends between valves (shells)
Blood swells the end of the foot
Foot acts as an anchor
The contraction pulls animal forward
DO THEY HAVE SHELLS?
Shell may be reduced in size, nonexistent, or internal as in the squid
------- region of --------
forms a ring of tentacles
---- pair of gills, tentacles
--- pair of gills,----- arms,
1 pair of gills, 8 arms,no tentacles
-----pair of gills, ---- arms, ---tentacles
1 pair of gills, 8 arms, 2 tentacles
THE SHELL OF A SQUID IS CALLED?
DOES OCTOPUS HAVE A SHELL?
DESCRIBE THE SHELL OF A NAUTILUS
gas chambers for buoyancy so animal can carry its shell
Shell is divided into chambers by transverse septa
When animal grows it moves forward and secretes a new chamber behind it
Animal lives in the last chamber
Brain of ganglia coordinated by many nerve cells – largest
brain of any invertebrates; have giant nerve fibers.
Eye: forms images; similar to vertebrate eye e.g., cornea,
CAN Octopi can discriminate shapes -
Communicate by visual signals
(movement of arms, fins, body) or by color changes due to the chromatophores - the cells in the skin that
contain pigment granules; protective coloring under nervous and hormonal
WHAT THE HELL ARE chromatophores?
cells in the skin that contain pigment granules; protective coloring under nervous and hormonal control
DO MOST CEPHALOPODS, EXECPT THE NAUTILOIDS, HAVE INK GLANDS?
Dioecious. Male plucks a spermatophore (contains sperm) from own body
and inserts it into the mantle cavity of the female, near oviduct opening.
Circulatory system: closed with heart, blood vessels, and capillaries
WHATS BETTER? OPEN OR CLOSED CIRCULATORY SYSTEM?
Closed system is more efficient than the open circulatorysystem of other mollusks
Provides more efficient movement of oxygen throughout theirlarge and active bodies
NAME TWO LINES OF EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF BILATERAL ANIMALS.
Protostomes and Deuterostomes.
Embryonic blastopore develops
into the mouth Anus forms secondarily
Platyhelminthes are acoelomate protostomes.
IS THE Platyhelminthes acoelomate protostomes?
Anus develops from the blastopore
2nd opening forms later in development gives rise to the mouth.
DEFINE CEPHALIZATION IN FLATWORMS.
centralization of nerves
(a pair of cerebral ganglia) at the anterior end of the animal
HOW ARE HUMANS INFECTED BY LUNG FLUKES?
Humans are infected by eating poorly cooked crabs or by
drinking water containing larvae freed from dead crabs.
THE LARVAL STAGES OF A FLUKE ARE KNOWN AS?
Sporocyst: A larval stage in life cycle of flukes; it originates from a miracidium.
Rediae: (ree-dee-uh) A larval stage in life cycle of flukes; it is produced by a sporocyst larva, and in turn gives rise to many cercariae.
Cercariae: (ser-kair-ee-uh) tadpolelike larvae of trematodes (flukes)
FLUKE ARE PART OF WHAT CLASS?
The chain of proglottids is called a......
NAME THE 3 STRUCTURES ON A TAPEWORM
MATURE " "
GRAVID " "
HOW ARE THE GRAVID PROGLOTTID RELEASED IN HUMANS?
Ripe proglottids detach in the human intestine, leave the
body in feces, crawl onto grass and are ingested by cattle.
DESCRIBE THE EVO OF THE COELOM
WHAT IS THE MUSCLE LAY OUT OF A NEMATODE?
Muscles in body wall run longitudinally only (not laterally).
DO NEMATODES HAVE A PROTONEPHRIDIA?
No protonephridia, instead they have a canal system or gland cells opening by excretory pore
Necator americanus: Human Hookworm, WHAT END FORMS THE HOOK?
Anterior end curves dorsally = hook
INFECTION OF HOOK WORMS WILL CAUSE THIS CONDITION
THIS NEMATODE CAN BE FOUND IN ANY PART OF THE HUMAN BODY.
Adults burrow into small intestine: females produce living young
Juveniles penetrate blood vessels and carried throughout the body
Found in any tissue or body space
Eventually penetrate skeletal muscle cells, becoming one of the largest known intracellular parasites.
Most common nematode parasite in US
Enterobius vermicularis: Pinworms
WHAT NEMATODIC WORK CAUSE THE ELEPHANT DISEASE.
EAT RAW VEGGIES FROM THE GARDEN AND YOU MIGHT GET THIS
HUMANS BECOME INFECTED BY HOOKWORMS WHAT 2 WAYS?
MOUTH OR SKIN
BESIDES THE LYMPHATIC VESSELS, WHERE ELSE DOES Wuchereia bancrofti SETTLE IN THE HUMAN BODY?
Common places to
settle are the arm, legs, and scrotum.
bodies are composed of serially repeated units
NAME 3 PHYLA THAT SHOW METAMERISM
EARTHWORM, WHAT PHYLUM?
DESCRIBE THE "BRAIN" OF A ANNELIDAN
Centralization of nervous system as cerebral ganglia.
ANNELIDA HAVE WHAT TYPE OF CIRCULATORY SYSTEM?
Closed circulatory system: muscular blood vessels and aortic arches (hearts).
WHAT ARE PARAPODIA AND WHO HAS THEM?
side feet with bristles. ANNELIDA. MARINE WORMS.
WHAT THE HELL IS A NEPHRIDOPORE?
WHO HAS IT AND WHATS THE FUNCTION?
ANNELIDA. ONE PER SEGMENT.
Remove waste from blood and coelom; a double transport system.
WHAT IS THE HIGHEST FORM OF ANIMAL THAT CAN REGENERATE?
WHO & FUNCTION.
HOW IS THE CIRCULAR GROOVES OF A EARTHWORM FORMED?
Segmented body – segments = metameres =somites
Separated by septa (where peritoneum of adjacent segments meet)
Provides external markings: circular grooves
Repetitive arrangement of organs and systems within the metameres
HEAD OF AN EARTHWORM IS WHAT END?
EARTHWORM CRAWL BY DOING WHAT?
crawling motions are produced by PERISTALTIC waves of contraction by longitudinal and
circular muscles passing down the body PUSHING THE ANTERIOR END FORWARD.
EARTHWORM, WHAT CLASS?
IN EARTHWORMS EACH SEGMENT BEARS HOW MANY CHITINOUS SETAE?
WHAT ARE TYPHOSOLE AND WHO HAS THEM?
DORSAL FOLDS WITHIN THE INTESTINES OF EARTHWORMS.
CLAM WORMS BELONG TO WHAT PHYLUM AND CLASS?
Phylum : Annelida
LARGEST CLASS OF THE PHYLUM ANNELIDA
MANY LONG HAIRS
DOES THE Class Polychaeta HAVE PERMANENT SEX ORGANS?
Consists of a central system (1pr of cerebral ganglia) and 1 pair of peripheral nerves or connectives
Most annelids have 1 to several giant axons in the ventral nerve cord for rapid escape
Giant axons allow for simultaneous contractions of muscles in many segments
WHO'S NERVOUS SYSTEM Consists of a central system (1pr of cerebral ganglia) and 1 pair of peripheral nerves or connectives.
Most have 1 to several giant axons in the ventral nerve cord for rapid escape.
AND Giant axons allow for simultaneous contractions of muscles in many segments?
Phylum : Annelida
WHAT IS THE Prostomium PART OF AN EARTHWORM?
first body segment in annelid worms. It is in front of (but does not include) the mouth, being usually a small shelf- or lip-like extension over the dorsal side of the mouth.