Ch.44 - Nutrition

  1. malpractice
    Injurious or unprofessional actions that harm another.
  2. amino acids
    Building blocks that construct proteins; the end products of protein digestion.
  3. anabolism
    Constructive metabolism characterized by conversion of simple substances into more complex compounds of living matter.
  4. anorexia
    Condition in which ill or debilitated clients have poor appetites.
  5. anorexia nervosa
    Disease characterized by a prolonged refusal to eat, resulting in emaciation, amenorrhea, emotional disturbance concerning body image, and an abnormal fear of becoming obese.
  6. Body Mass Index (BMI)
    Measurement of weight, corrected for height, which serves as an alternative to traditional height-weight relationships.
  7. bulimia nervosa
    Insatiable craving for fond, often resulting in episodes of continuous eating that are followed by purging, depression, and self-deprivation.
  8. carbohydrate
    Dietary classification of food such as sugars, starches, cellulose, and gum.
  9. catabolism
    Complex metabolic process in which energy is liberated for use in work, energy, storage, or heat production by oxidation of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins; carbon dioxide and water, as well as energy, are produced.
  10. daily values
    Set of dietary standards for eight nutrients and food categories.
  11. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)
    Format presenting a range of acceptable intake in place of absolute values.
  12. dysphagia
    difficulty swallowing
  13. Enteral Nutrition (EN)
    • Provision of nutrients through the gastrointestinal tract when the client cannot ingest, chew, or swallow food but can digest and absorb nutrients.
    • Types of EN: polymetric, modular, elemental, speciality
  14. enzymes
    Proteins produced by living cells that catalyze chemical reactions in organic matter.
  15. fat-soluble vitamins
    Organic compounds essential for normal physiological and metabolic functioning; classified on the basis of their fat solubility.
  16. fatty acids
    Nutrients composed of chains of carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms with an acid group on one end of the chain and a methyl group at the other.
  17. gluconeogenesis
    Formation of glucose or glycogen from substances that are not carbohydrates, such as proteins or lipids.
  18. glycogenesis
    Anabolism of glucose into glycogen for storage.
  19. glycogenolysis
    Catabolism of glycogen into glucose, carbon dioxide, and water.
  20. hypervitaminosis
    Condition caused by excessive intake of a vitamin; less likely to occur with water-soluble vitamins.
  21. Ideal Body Weight (IBW)
    Estimate of what a person should weigh.
  22. ketone
    Organic chemical compound characterized by having in its structure a carbonyl, or keto, group, =CO, attached to two alkyl groups.
  23. lipid
    Any of the free fatty acid fractions in the blood.
  24. lipid emulsions
    Soybean- or safflower-oil-based solutions that are isotonic and that may be infused with amino acid and dextrose solution through a central or peripheral line.
  25. macromineral
    Minerals classified as having a daily requirement of 100 mg or more.
  26. malabsorption
    Set of symptoms resulting from disorders in the intestinal absorption of nutrients; characterized by anorexia, weight loss, bloating of the abdomen, and muscle cramps.
  27. Medical Nutrition Therapy (MNT)
    Use of specific nutritional therapies to treat an illness, injury, or condition.
  28. metabolism
    Aggregate of all chemical processes that take place in living organisms, resulting in growth, generation of energy, elimination of wastes, and other functions concerned with the distribution of nutrients in the blood after digestion.
  29. minerals
    Inorganic elements essential to the body because of their role as catalysts in biochemical reactions.
  30. monosaturated (fatty acids)
    Fatty acids that have one carbon bond.
  31. nitrogen balance
    Relationship between the nitrogen taken into the body, usually as food, and the nitrogen excreted from the body in urine and feces. Most of the body's nitrogen is incorporated into protein.
  32. nutrient density
    Proportion of essential nutrients to the number of calories of a specific food.
  33. Parenteral Nutrition (PN)
    Administration of nutrition into the vascular system.
  34. polyunsaturated (fatty acids)
    Fatty acids that have two or more carbon double bonds.
  35. Resting Energy Expenditure (REE)
    Measurement that accounts for BMR plus energy to digest meals and perform mild activity.
  36. saccharide
    Within carbohydrates, a classification of sugars.
  37. saturated (fatty acids)
    Fatty acids in which each carbon in the chain has an attached hydrogen atom.
  38. simple carbohydrates
    Monosaccharides and disaccharides, found primarily in sugars.
  39. trace elements
    Minerals when less than 100 mg is needed daily; microminerals.
  40. triglycerides
    Circulate in the blood and are made up of three fatty acids attached to a glycerol.
  41. unsaturated (fatty acids)
    Fatty acids in which an unequal number of hydrogen atoms are attached and the carbon atoms attach to each other with a double bond.
  42. vegetarianism
    Consumption of a diet consisting predominantly of plant foods.
  43. vitamins
    • Organic compounds essential in small quantities for normal physiological and metabolic functioning of the body.
    • With few exceptions, vitamins cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained from the diet or dietary supplements.
  44. water-soluble vitamins
    Vitamins that cannot be stored in the body and must be provided in the daily food intake, such as vitamin C and B complex.
  45. anthopometry
    A measurement system of the size and makeup of the body, including height and weight, BMI and other objective data showing the body's construction.
  46. dispensable amino acids
    Amino acids that the body synthesizes
  47. indispensible amino acids
    Amino acids that the body cannot synthesize
  48. kilocalorie (kcal)
    • Measurement of heat that is equal to the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree at one atmosphere pressure.
    • Characterizes the energy-producing potential in food
  49. Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
    Amount of energy used in a unit of time by a fasting, resting subject to maintain vital functions.
  50. rest
    • feeling of mental relaxation and freedom from anxiety
    • physical calm
  51. fiber
    • nutrient that contains cellulose, pectin, hemicellulose, and lignin
    • sources are mainly fruits and vegetables
  52. chyme
    Viscous, semifluid contents of the stomach present during digestion of a meal that eventually pass into the intestines.
  53. peristalsis
    Coordinated, rhythmic, serial contractions of smooth muscle that force food through the digestive tract.
  54. digestion
    the process of decomposing organic matter (as in sewage) by bacteria or by chemical action or heat
  55. absorption
    the process of absorbing nutrients into the body after digestion
  56. ingestion
    taking food into the body through the mouth (as by eating)
Card Set
Ch.44 - Nutrition
N200 review - vocab and powerpoint