Animal Bio Exam 2

  1. What do we need to do to make new cell?
    An old one
  2. What are the requirements for cell divison?
    • 1. Grow: build new macromolecular structures
    • 2. Duplicate genetic material (DNA replication)
    • 3. Partition/segregate genetic material (mitosis)
    • 4. Divide content of cytoplasm (cytokinesis)
  3. Describe Bacterial Cell Division
    • Simple process produces two cell from one
    • Call process binary fission
    • Actually more complex than we usually talk about
    • Proteins involved are similar to eukaryotic proteins
    • Process is distinct and different from mitosis
  4. What are the key feature of bacterial division
    • Replication and segregation concerted process
    • -Chromosome is "pushed" to poles during replications
    • -Chromosome finish replication at opposite poles
  5. What is the exact mechanism of segregation of bacterial division?
    • Not Known
    • Appears to be under controll by cell
    • Appears to use cellular proteins (not passive)
  6. What's the difference between bacterial and eukaryotic cell division?
    • More complex genome, multiple chromosomes
    • Genome inside nucleous
    • More complex cytoplasmic contents
  7. What are the key feature of Eukaryotic cell division?
    • Keep products of replication together (protein glue)
    • Temporal separation and replication/segregation
  8. Describe the cell cycle
    • G1: Gap 1 prepares for DNA replication
    • S: During synthesis DNA is replicated
    • G2: Gap 2 prepares for mitosis
    • M: Mitosis segregate chromosomes
  9. What is the interphase in cell division?
    G1, S, G2
  10. What is the M phase in cell division?
    Mitosis and Cytokinesis
  11. What is G0?
    Cells have left the cycle: noncycling
  12. Image Upload 2
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  14. Eukaryotic Chromosomes
    • Linear structure that contain single DNA molecule
    • DNA molecule is alwways packaged into chromosomes
    • -1st DNA wrapped around protein is Nucleosomes
    • Amount of condesation changes during cell cycle
    • Chromosome has visible constriction call centromere
  15. Centromere
    • Site where replicated chromosomes held together
    • Site of kinetochore: functional element of centromere
  16. What are the phases of mitosis?
    • Prophase
    • (Prometaphase)
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
  17. What is the function of mitosis?
    • Segregate chromosomes
    • -Each cell gets 1 copy each chromsome
  18. How do cells gets entire genome?
    • Keep chromosome together after replication
    • Align them together in the center of cell
    • Pull apart copies at the same time
  19. What do the cell use to separate chromosomes?
    Spindle - microtubules
  20. Describe prophase
    chromosome condense; nucleus breaks down, spindle forms (microtubles)
  21. Describe metaphase
    Chromosomes move to center of cell, attached to spindle at equator (metaphase plate)
  22. What happens in Anaphase?
    Chromosomes are pulled to poles
  23. What happens in telophase?
    reverse of prophase; spindle breaks down, nucleuos reform
  24. What happens in cytokinesis?
    • Cell is actually divided
    • -contrictile ring of microfilaments
  25. Events in the cell cycle that are irreversible
    • DNA replication
    • Anaphase
  26. How do cell insure accuracy?
    monitors process with mechanisms of control
  27. Positive regulators that drive cell cycle
    • Cyclin proteins are produced in synchrony with cell cycle
    • Cycclin dependent kinases (cdk) drive cell cycle
  28. 1st Checkpoint of cell cycle
    • G1/S - also called START
    • -Decision to replicate DNA
    • -Check for chromosome integrity
  29. 2nd Checkpoint of cell cycle
    • G2/M
    • -Replication complete?
    • -Damaged?
  30. 3rd Checkpoint of cell cycle
    • Metaphase/Anaphase: decision to separate chromosomes
    • -All chromosome align properly
    • -Connected to both poles
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Animal Bio Exam 2
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