Biology Midterm

  1. Hydrocarbs
  2. - Organic
    • compounds composed of only hydrogen and carbon
    • - Hydrophobic (don’t like water)
    • - C, H
    • Image Upload 2
  3. Image Upload 4
    Ringed Structure
  4. Image Upload 6
    Branched Structure
  5. Image Upload 8
    Linear structure
  6. Isomer
    • same molecular formula (same # of atoms and
    • same elements), but different structural formula(thus different properties)
  7. Alcohols
    • - Composed of C and H, but have no hydroxyl
    • groups.
    • -Polar.
    • - C, H,O, (OH-)
    • Image Upload 10
  8. Geometric Isomer
    • same covalent partnerships, but differ in the arrangements of their double bonds.
    • Image Upload 12
  9. Structural
    • Differ
    • in the arrangements of their atoms and may differ in the location of double
    • bonds.Image Upload 14

    1. Hydroxyl
      group- (---OH)or (HO---)

    • Hydrogen
    • atom is bonded to an oxygen atom, which bonds to the carbon skeleton of the
    • organic molecule.Image Upload 16

    1. Carboxyl Functional group-

      1. The entire group when an oxygen atom is double
      2. bonded to a carbon atom that is also bonded to an –OH group.
      Image Upload 18

    1. Phosphate Functional
      group- (--OPO3)

      1. Phosphorus atom bonded to four oxygen atoms; one
      2. oxygen is bounded to the carbon skeleton; two
      3. oxygens carry negative charges.
      Image Upload 20

    1. Amino
      group-(--NH2 )

      1. Consists of Nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen
      2. atoms to the carbon skeleton
      Image Upload 22
  10. Image Upload 24What Functional group does this bond belong to?
    Amino Acid
  11. Image Upload 26What functional group does this bond belong to?
  12. Image Upload 28What functional group does this bond belong to?
    Hydroxyl Group
  13. Image Upload 30What functional group does this bond belong to?
  14. What is a functional group?
    • 1)
    • chemical
    • groups that affect molecular function by being directly involved in chemical
    • reactions.
    • -hydrophilic and make compounds more hydrophilic (absorb in water)(increase
    • solubility)
    • The "R"
  15. What Elements make up Carbohydrates?
  16. What elements make up alcohols?
    • C,H,O,
    • (OH--)
  17. What elements make up a hydrocarbon?
  18. What elements make up a Lipid(fat)?
  19. Describe Dehydration
      1. i.
      2. Take water out

    • ii.
    • Use enzymes (macromolecules that speed up chemical
    • reaction)

    • iii.
    • Linkage
    • of small molecules to make larger molecules
  • Describe Hydrolysis
      1. i.
      2. Reverse of Dehydration

    • ii.
    • Inserts water to break a bond

    • iii.
    • Uses enzymes

    • iv.
    • Breaking
    • large molecules into smaller molecules
  • What is a carbohydrate?
    used as an energy source
  • What are the building blocks of a carbohydrate?
    • Carbons
    • hydrogens and oxygens
  • What are the building blocks of a protein?
    • consists
    • of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and sometimes sulfur
  • Fats
    glycerol and fatty acids
  • Nueclotide Based Molecules
      1. 5
      2. carbon sugar,nitrogen base, and phosphate group (DNA, RNA)
  • Monosacharides-
      1. Sugar
      2. , 3-7 carbons and 2 or more OH groups

    • Those
    • with 5 or more carbons form ring structures

    • Sugar

    1. Disaccharide- (di- Two)

      1. Two
      2. monosaccharides

    • Formed
    • by Dehydration Synthesis

    • Examples:
    • Sucrose (glucose and fructose), Lactose ( glucose and galactose) Maltose
    • (glucose and glucose)

    1. Polysaccharide- (many)

      1. Three or more monosaccharides

    • Serve
    • as storage macromolecules

    • Long
    • chains of glucose

      1. Ex.
      2. Starch – storage form of sugar serve as building materials

    • Ex. - Cellulose- cell walls of plants

    • -
    • Glycogen – in animals. Form in which sugar is
    • stored in certain animal tissues (liver & Muscle). Stored in small
    • granules.

      1. Formed
      2. by Hydrolysis
  • sucrose
    glucose and fructose
  • lactose
    glucose and glactose
  • maltose
    glucose and glucose
  • What is a structural Isomer?
    • Differ
    • in the arrangements of their atoms and may differ in the location of double
    • bonds. Same molecular, different structural formula.
  • What are 3 monosaccharide monomers?
    • glucose,
    • fructose, galactose
  • What are 3 disaccharide monomers?
    • succross,
    • lactoss, maltose
  • What are 3 examples of a pollysaccharide?
      1. Starch
      2. – storage form of sugar serve as building materials
      3. - Cellulose- cell walls of plants
    • Glycogen – in animals. Form in which sugar is
    • stored in certain animal tissues (liver & Muscle). Stored in small
    • granules.
  • Describe a primary protein structure
      1. first)-the
      2. particular sequence and types of amino acids.

      1. i.
      2. like composing words from the alphabet

    • ii.
    • primary structure determined by the inherited
    • genetic info.( not random linking!)
    • Image Upload 32
  • Describe a Secondary protein structure?
      1. )-“repeated
      2. pattern” or arrangement- hydrogen bonding responsible for helical patterns or sheet-like
      3. pat terns (Pleated sheets)

      1. i.
      2. Result of hydrogen
      3. bonds between the repeating constituents
      4. of the polypeptide backbone.
    • Image Upload 34
  • Tertiary
      1. (3rd)-three
      2. dimensional, globular or coiled, fibrous (helixes or pleated sheets may be
      3. parallel to eachother)

      1. i.
      2. Overall shape of a polypeptide resulting from
      3. interactions between othe sie chains of the amino acids
    • Image Upload 36
  • Quaternary
      1. 4th)-
      2. results from the interaction of 2 or more polypeptide chains.

      1. Image Upload 38
      2. i.
      3. Overall protein structure that results from the
      4. aggregation of polypeptide units.
  • What are amino acids?
    the building blocks of protiens?
  • what are the building blocks of amino acids
      1. i.
      2. Carboxyl and amino groups
  • What is the denaturation of proteins? and name an example
    • 1)
    • proteins are exposed to increased temperatures
    • or chemicals. Loss of structure
    • EX: egg whites before and after heat
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  • what is an enzyme?
    • 1)
    • specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical
    • reactions in cells
  • Components
    of Nucleotides
      1. 5 Carbon Sugar- ribose and deoxyribose

    • Nitrogen containing base (ring)

    • Phosphate group
  • what is the function of the nucleotide based molecule, ATP(Adenosine Triphosphate)?

      • High energy molecule that transforms energy
      • around the cell. Nitrogen containing base, sugar and 3 phosphate groups.

  • what is the structure of ATP?
    Nitrogen containing base, sugar and 3 phosphate groups.Image Upload 42
  • Nucleic acid
    DNA and RNA
  • what is DNA made up of?
    Rungs(bases) and uprights (sugar and phosphate) thymine, guanine, cytosine, and adenine
  • What is RNA composed of?
    the same as DNA expt instead of thymine it has uricile
  • what does NADH and FADH do?
      1. Transport H atoms and e- in metabolism. Roam
      2. around cell and pick up electrons to another
      3. part in cell and drop it off

    • Image Upload 44this reaction is also reversable. it can loose the e and go from NADH to NAD
  • WHat is the structure of NADH?
    • nicotinamide
    • ,adenine ,dinucleotide
  • What is the structure of FADH?
    • flavin,
    • adenind, dinucleotide
  • Compare and contrast DNA and RNA
    Image Upload 46
  • Describe Transcription
    • 1)
    • DNA (storehouses of instructions to build
    • proteins). Enzyme,Helicase, unwinds DNA
    • so expose instructions. Another molecule copies them to form RNA.
  • Describe Translation
    • The RNA goes through
    • the nuclear pores (gatekeeper) and takes it the Ribosome.
    • The ribosome (like a machine) builds a
    • specific type of amino acids. When the chain of amino acids are finished they
    • move from the ribosome into a machine that folds it into its particular shape
    • for function, a protein (like hemoglobin)
  • Lipids with fatty acid components
      1. i.
      2. fatty acid: consists of a carboxyl group
      3. attatched to a long carbon skeleton

    • ii.
    • don’t dissolve in water, waxed and cutin
  • Lipids without fatty acid components?
      1. i.
      2. Steroids, four carbon rings, hormones
  • What is a Triglyceride and what is its function?
      1. One glycerol with three fatty acids produce a
      2. triglyceride by bonding. When they bond dehydration occurs and the waters are
      3. taken out.

    • It’s a fat, so it stores energy for animals
    • and people
  • What is the function of a Phospholipid?
    Make up cell membranes
  • Describe a phospholipid
    • b. Has a hydrophilic head and two hydrophobic
    • tails

    • c. It has two (not three like
    • they fat molecule) fatty acid tails
    • attached to the glycerol head.

    • d. form
    • bilayer in environment with water.
  • cholesterol
    • synthasizes
    • steroids
  • Testosterone and Estrogen
    • reproduction
    • hormone
  • saturated fat
    • has
    • a straight tail because all hydrogen have single bonds.(butter)
  • unsaturated fat
    • has
    • a kink in the tail because of the double bond in the hydrogen (oil)
  • what is a chromosome?
    • a
    • cellular structure carrying genetic material that is found in the nucleus of
    • eukaryotic cells. A bacterial chromosome is found in the nuecleoid region
  • gene
    • unit of
    • hereditary info consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence of DNA
  • genetic code
    sequence of chromosomes in a base pair
  • Cell Theory
      1. all organisms are composed of one or more cells.

    • The cell is the basic living unit

    • All cells arise from pre-existing cells
  • What are the common characteristics of cells?
    • plasma membrane
    • cytoplasm
    • genetic material
  • how do cells differ?
    size and structure. (morphology and physiolgy)
  • Plasma Membrane
    • phospholipids
    • are major component; controls what enters and leaves the cell (homeostatic)
  • Cytoplasm
    • thick
    • (like syrup), made of water and ribosomes.
  • Genetic Material
    • DNA
    • which is found in the nucleus of eukaryotes but found in the nucleoid region of
    • prokaryotes
  • Prokaryotes
    *Domain- Archaea and Bacteria

    *Structurally less complex

    *Average 1-10 microns

    *No membrane bound organelles

    *Nucleoid region

    *Cell division by binary fission
  • Eukaryotes
    • *Domain Eukarya Kingdoms- Plantae, Anamilia, Fungi, Protista
    • *Structurally more complex
    • *single and multicellular organelles
    • *Larger than 10-100 microns(micrometers)
    • *Membrane bound organelles
    • *True nucleus
    • * Cell division by cytokinesis preceeded by mitosis or meiosis.
  • Campare and contrast Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
    • Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes both have DNA, a plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and ribosomes.
    • Prokaryotes have DNA in the
    • chromosome in nucleoid region.
    • Eukaryotes have DNA chromosome in the nucleus. They also have membrane bound organelles, Cytomembrane system(golgi bodies, ER, lysosomes)
  • what is the function of the Nucleus
      1. contains
      2. most of the DNA in the cell and is surrounded by a double membrane.
  • Nuclear membrane
      1. i.
      2. separates the DNA in the nucleus from the
      3. rest of the cell. It also stores genetic information and controls cytoplasmic
      4. chemical reactions.
  • Necleoplasm
      1. i.
      2. The
      3. fluid contained within the nucleus of a eukaryote in
      4. which the chromosomes and nucleoli are found.
  • Nucleoli
    • Found
    • in the cytoplasm of the cell. composed of proteins and nucleic acids. Used in
    • formation of ribosomes
  • Chromosomes
    • genetic
    • info. Single piece of coiled DNA
  • Nucleopores
    security gate
  • Cytoplasm
    • contains
    • the rest of the organelles such as ER, mitochondria, etc. Outside of the
    • nucleus
  • Rough ER
      1. - attached to the outside of the
      2. membrane. It is the machine that helps with protein synthesis. It reads the
      3. messenger RNA to make the new protien

    • Smooth ER-contains
    • enzymes involved in lipid and steroid synthesis and detoxification. lacks bound
    • ribosomes
  • Smooth ER
    • contains
    • enzymes involved in lipid and steroid synthesis and detoxification. lacks bound
    • ribosomes
  • Golgi bodies
    • -Its
    • like the post office and each mail truck is a message being sent. It receives
    • substances from the ER, then it modify’s (sorts) them and packages them and
    • sends them off to the plasma membrane
  • Mitochondria
    contains a Matrix, cristae, inner membrane, outer membrane, intermembrane space,
  • Matrix
      1. i.
      2. contains DNA(not found in the nucleus) and
      3. enzymes involved in metabolic activities. Inclosed by the inner membrane. Involved in
      4. cellular resperation
  • Cristae
    • formed
    • by the inner membrane infoldings. Divides
    • mitochondrion into two separate parts.
  • Inner Membrane
    • Makes
    • the folding that form Cristae. Narrow region between the inner and outer membranes
  • Outer Membrane
    • - includes
    • proteins that can be used by the matrix to convert lipid substances.
  • Intermembrane space
    • contains
    • enzymes that use ATP to phosphorylate
    • other nuceotides
  • what is a Plastid?
    closely related plant organelles
  • Chloroplasts
    • site
    • of photosynthesis. Convert solar energy to chemical energy by absorbing
    • sunlight.
    • Has a thylakoid membrane, grana, theylakoidj space and stroma
  • THylakoid membrane
    • system of interconnected membranes that are arranged
    • into stacked and unstacked regions called grana and stroma thylakoids.
  • Grana
    • series
    • of stacked thylakoid disks containing chlorophyll; found in the inner membrane
    • of chloroplasts.
  • Thylakoid space
    interior of thylakoids
  • Photosynthesis
    takes place in the chloroplasts
  • stroma
    surrounds the thylakoid space. Contains free ribosomes and copies of the chloroplst genome
  • Chromoplasts
      1. i.
      2. synthesize and cartenoid pigments, yellow,
      3. orange, red, or brown, that give flowers and fruits their color.

      1. attract
      2. pollinators
  • Leucoplasts
      1. i.
      2. no pigment

      1. Storage
      2. sites and synthesis for startch

    • Can
    • change into chloroplasts when exposed to light
  • Vacuoles and peroxisomes
    • contain
    • cell sap,water, sals, sugars, protein enzymes, storage agent. Increases cell
    • area.
  • Lysosomes

      • digest
      • materials taken into the cell

  • Hydrolytic enzymes
    made by rough ER, recycle the cells own genetic material
  • Intracellular digestion
    carried out by lysosomes
  • Apoptosis
    cell suicide
  • Cytoskeleton
      1. network
      2. of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm. (like the highway)Responsible
      3. for:

      1. Cell
      2. shape

    • Internal
    • organization

    • Motility
  • Actin filaments
    globular, highly conserved
  • Intermediate filaments
    family of related proteins that share common structural and sequence features
  • Microtubules
    polymers that make up facilia and fagila in a 9 to 2 ratio. ( 9 outer, 2 inner)
  • cilia
    moves the egg
  • flagella
    • sperm tail
    • turn in circle like boat moter to move
  • centrosomes
    microtuble organizing center. regulator of cell cycle progression
  • ribosomes
    make proteins from amino acids according to instructions from genes. On rough ER and free floating in cytoplasm
  • Centrioles

      • i.
      • composed
      • of 9 microtubules. Located in cytoplasm
      • replicates for animal cell divison
  • compare and contrast the plant and animal cell
    • Animal Cells: Centriole Plant Cells: Chloroplast, Cell Wall Both: Cell Membrane, Mitochondrion, ribosomes, endoplasmic
    • reticulum, nuclear membrane, nucleus, nucleolus, chromosome, vacuole, Golgi
    • apparatus, cytoplasm, flagellum
  • how does a light microscope work?
    • 1) In
    • a light microscope, visible light is passed through a specimen and then through
    • glass lenses. The lenses refract the light is such a way that the image of the
    • specimen is magnified as it is projected into the eye, onto photographic film
    • or digital sensor, ot onto a video screen.
  • how does an electron microscope work?
    • 1) In
    • an electron microscope it focuses a beam of electrons through the specimen or
    • onto its surface.
  • describe the structer of membranes
    made up of phospholipid bilayer and proteins
  • proteins components
    • organic
    • compounds made of amino acids
    • -
  • Glycoprotein components and function
    • contain
    • glycan covalently attatched to polypeptide side chains.
    • - They allow certain types of cell-to-cell communication, help coordinate
    • complicated cellular responses to stimuli, and activate the action of other
    • types of cells.
  • what is a glycoglipid composed of and its function
      1. glipids
      2. with carbohydrate attatched
      -are carbohydrate attached lipids. Their role is to provide energy and also
    • serve as markers for cellular recognition.
  • cholesterol
    • waxes,
    • steroid, metabolite. Found in cell membrane
  • whats the difference between a transmembrane and peripheral proteins
    1) Transmembrane are embeded into the membrane and peripheral are loosely attatched to the outside.
  • transport protein-
    hydrophilic channel that certain molecules or atomic ions use as a tunnel through the membrane
  • enzymatic protein
    a protein built into the membrane may be an enzyme with its ative site exposed to substances in the adjacent solution.
  • signal transduction psirotein
    A membrane protein (receptor)may have a binding site with a specific shape that fits the shape of a chemical messenger, such as a hormone. the external messenger may cause a shape change in the protein that relays the message to the inside of the cell
  • intercellular joining protein
    membrane bound proteins of adjacent cells may hook together in various kinds of junctions such as gap junctions or tight junctions
  • ECM
    • microfilaments
    • or other elements noncovalantly bounded
    • to membrane proteins, function helps maintain cell shape and stabilizes location
    • of certain mem. proteins
  • micrometer
    one millionth 10 -6
  • decimeter
    one hundreth of a meter 10-1
  • millommeter
    10-3, one thousandth
  • centimeter
  • nanometer
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    Card Set
    Biology Midterm
    biology midterm. cells