Criteria for disabilities (sl-vi)

  1. "Speech or Language Impairment" means
    a communication disorder, such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment, that adversely affects a child's educational performance.
  2. possible intellectual, academic, and behavioral referral characteristics
    • A. Intellectual
    • 1. Intellectual functioning is not as strong an indicator as are
    • other referral characteristics
    • B. Academic
    • 1. Overall achievement may be below expectancy in relation
    • to chronological age, mental age, or both
    • 2. Achievement in reading, spelling, written composition,
    • grammatical usage or math processes may be below
    • expected levels, often with delay or difficulty in acquisition
    • of pre-reading or other readiness skills
    • 3. Word knowledge may be below expectancy
    • 4. Word substitutions may occur frequently in reading and in
    • writing from copy or reproducing from recall
    • C. Behavioral
    • 1. Hesitates or refuses to participate in verbal activities
    • 2. Is inattentive, distractible; exhibits poor concentration; has
    • difficulty "tuning in" to tasks or switching tasks
    • 3. Displays refusal behavior and/or low frustration tolerance
    • 4. Perseverates verbally and/or motorically

    • 5. Has difficulty following directions; must be "shown" what
    • to do
    • 6. Has trouble analyzing/integrating information from what is
    • seen, heard or felt
    • 7. Is embarrassed or disturbed by his speech, regardless of age
    • 8. Has difficulty interpreting emotions, attitudes and
    • intentions others communicate through nonverbal aspects
    • of communication (facial expressions and body language)
    • 9. Responds inappropriately to subtle nonverbal social cues,
    • often giving inappropriate social responses
    • 10. May not establish or maintain eye contact
    • 11. Repeats what is said to him or what he is reading, vocally
    • or subvocally
    • 12. Uses gestures extensively while talking or in place of
    • speech
    • 13. Is slow to respond during verbal interaction or following
    • verbal cues
    • 14. Is compulsive in actions or speech
    • 15. Acts impulsively, without forethought; often responds
    • before instructions are completed
    • 16. Is echolalic
    • 17. Has difficulty remembering and finding specific words to
    • use during conversation or when answering a question
  3. communicative refferal characteristics for SL
    • 1. Asks questions and/or responds to questions
    • inappropriately (especially "why" and "how" question
    • forms)
    • 2. Has difficulty discriminating likenesses and differences

    • 3. Has difficulty analyzing and synthesizing sound sequences,
    • forming stable phoneme/grapheme associations, and
    • segmenting words into smaller grammatical units
    • 4. Has difficulty learning and applying concepts of time,
    • space, quantity, size, proportion and measurement
    • 5. Has difficulty comprehending and using linguistically
    • complex sentences
    • 6. Has problems acquiring and using grammatical rules and
    • patterns for word and sentence formation
    • 7. Cannot identify pronouns and their antecedents
    • 8. Cannot relate the events in a story or information in a
    • report in sequential order
    • 9. Cannot predict outcomes, make judgments, draw
    • conclusions or generate alternatives after appropriate
    • discussion
    • 10. Does not recognize and understand figurative language
    • such as alliteration, similes, metaphors, personification, and
    • idioms
    • 11. Does not recognize syllabication and accent in words
    • 12. Cannot give clear and appropriate directions
    • 13. Has difficulty interpreting or formulating (oral or written)
    • compound or complex sentences, and/or sentences which
    • compare and contrast ideas or show cause-effect
    • relationships
    • 14. Cannot summarize essential details from hearing or reading
    • a passage, nor distinguish relevant from irrelevant
    • information
    • 15. Has difficulty analyzing and solving math reading
    • problems of various complexity (one or multiple step),
    • including those involving probability
    • 16. Will not initiate conversations

    • 17. Cannot identify or use expository, descriptive or narrative
    • language in written work
    • 18. Cannot write an organized paragraph using related
    • sentences of varying length and grammatical complexity
    • 19. Has problems interpreting and/or using vocal pitch,
    • intensity, and timing for purposes of communicating subtle
    • distinctions in emotion and intention
    • 20. Has inappropriate vocal pitch for age and sex
    • 21. Does not use appropriate vocal control, particularly in
    • regulating speaking volume (unusually loud or soft)
    • 22. Has breathy, harsh, husky or monotone voice
    • 23. Continually sounds congested (denasal)
    • 24. Sounds unusually nasal; voice has a "whining" quality
    • 25. Has abnormal rhythm or rate of speech
    • 26. Frequently prolongs or repeats sounds, words, phrases
    • and/or sentences during speech
    • 27. Has unintelligible (cannot be understood) or indistinct
    • speech
    • 28. Has difficulty articulating sounds within words
  4. physical referral characteristics
  5. 1. Conditions are indicated in the student's
    • medical/developmental history, such as cleft lip and/or
    • palate, deviant palatal-pharyngeal structure, cerebral palsy,
    • muscular dystrophy, brain injury, aphasia, vocal nodules or
    • other pathology of the vocal mechanism, hearing loss,
    • myringotomy or other aural surgery, orofacial
    • abnormalities, congenital disorders
    • 2. Has continuous allergy problems or frequent colds
    • 3. Has deviant dental structure
    • 4. Has oral muscular coordination slower than normal
  6. required evaluation data
  7. A. Social History
    • B. Individual Achievement (formal or informal)
    • C. Communicative Abilities (Required as described below)
    • The speech-language pathologist (SLP) is to conduct a thorough
    • and balanced speech, language, or communication assessment.
  8. Types of communication disorders:
    1. language disorder
  9. Impaired comprehension and/or use of
    • spoken, written, and/or other symbol systems. This disorder
    • may involve the form of language (phonology,
    • morphology, syntax), the content and meaning of language
    • (semantics, prosody), and/or the function of language
    • (pragmatics) in communication.
  10. phonology:
  11. is the sound system of language and
    the rules that govern the sound combinations.
  12. morphology
  13. Is the system that governs the
    • structure of words and the construction of word
    • forms.
  14. syntax:
  15. Is the system governing the order and
    • combination of words to form sentences, and the
    • relationships among the elements within a sentence.
  16. semantics
  17. is the system that governs the meanings
    of words in sentences.
  18. prosody
  19. Is the feature of communication involving
    • stress and intonation patterns that convey the
    • meaning of spoken utterances, determined primarily
    • by variations in pitch, loudness and duration. Status
    • may be reported from informal observation.
  20. pragmatics
  21. is the system that combines the above
    • language components in functional and socially
    • appropriate communication.
  22. perception and processing:
  23. is the manner by which
    • language is internally received and responded to
    • and involves attention, sequencing, memory,
    • analysis, synthesis and/or discrimination abilities.
  24. speech production disorder
  25. Impairment of the
    • articulation of speech sounds, fluency and/or voice. Such
    • disorders may involve one, all or a combination of the
    • following components of the speech production system.
  26. articulation
  27. an articulation disorder is the
    • production and combination of speech sounds. An
    • articulation disorder may manifest as an individual
    • sound deficiency (traditional articulation disorder),
    • incomplete or deviant use of the phonological
    • system (phonological disorder), or poor
    • coordination of oral-motor mechanism for purposes
    • of speech production (apraxia/dysarthria).
  28. voice
  29. is the feature of speech production
    • that impacts tonal quality, pitch, loudness and
    • resonance of speech. Adequate status may be
    • reported from informal observation.
  30. Fluency -
    is the feature of speech production that impacts the rate and rhythm of conversational speech. Slight to severe physical behaviors may also accompany the disorder. Adequate status may be reported from informal observation
  31. "Traumatic brain injury" means
    an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child's educational performance. The term applies to open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments in one or more areas, such as cognition; language; memory; attention; reasoning; abstract thinking; judgment; problem-solving; sensory, perceptual, and motor abilities; psychosocial behavior; physical functions; information processing; and speech.
  32. cognitive behavior referral characteristics for TBI
  33. 1. Difficulty in initiating, organizing and completing tasks
    • 2. Inconsistency in recall of information
    • 3. Difficulty in using appropriate judgment
    • 4. Difficulty with long-term memory
    • 5. Difficulty with short-term memory
    • 6. Difficulty in maintaining attention and concentration
    • 7. Difficulty with flexibility in thinking, reasoning and
    • problem-solving
    • 8. Difficulty with orientation to person, places and/or time
    • 9. Difficulty with speed of processing information
    • 10. Exhibits gaps in task analysis
  34. communicative behaviors of TBI
  35. 1. Difficulty in initiating, maintaining, restructuring and
    • terminating conversation
    • 2. Difficulty in maintaining the topic of conversation
    • 3. Difficulty in discriminating relevant from irrelevant
    • information
    • 4. Difficulty in producing relevant speech
    • 5. Difficulty responding to verbal communication in a timely,
    • accurate, and efficient manner
    • 6. Difficulty in understanding verbal information
    • 7. Difficulty with word retrieval
    • 8. Difficulty with articulation (which may include apraxia
    • and/or dysarthria)
    • 9. Difficulty with voice production (such as intensity, pitch
    • and/or quality)
    • 10. Difficulty in producing fluent speech
    • 11. Difficulty in formulating and sequencing ideas
    • 12. Difficulty with abstract and figurative language
    • 13. Difficulty with perseverated speech (repetition of words,
    • phrases, and topics)
    • 14. Difficulty using appropriate syntax
    • 15. Difficulty using language appropriately (such as requesting
    • information, predicting, debating, and using humor)
    • 16. Difficulty in understanding and producing written
    • communication
    • 17. Difficulty with noise overload
    • 18. Difficulty in interpreting subtle verbal and nonverbal cues
    • during conversation
  36. social emotional behaviors of TBI
  37. 1. Difficulty in perceiving, evaluating and using social cues
    • and context appropriately
    • 2. Difficulty in initiating and sustaining appropriate peer and
    • family relationships
    • 3. Difficulty in demonstrating age-appropriate behavior
    • 4. Difficulty in coping with over-stimulating environments
    • 5. Denial of deficits affecting performance
    • 6. Difficulty in establishing and maintaining self-esteem
    • 7. Difficulty with using self-control (verbal and physical
    • aggression)
    • 8. Difficulty with speaking and acting impulsively
    • 9. Difficulty in initiating activities
    • 10. Difficulty in adjusting to change
    • 11. Difficulty in compliance with requests
    • 12. Difficulty with hyperactivity
    • 13. Intensification of pre-existent maladaptive behaviors and/or
    • disabilities
  38. physical impairments of TBI
    • 1. Exhibits short-term or long-term physical disabilities
    • 2. Displays seizure activity
    • 3. Difficulty in spatial orientation (visual motor/ perceptual)
    • 4. Difficulty with mobility and independence (to include
    • problems in balance, strength, muscle tone, equilibrium and
    • gross motor skills)

    • 5. Difficulty with vision (which may include tracking, blind
    • spots and/or double vision)
    • 6. Difficulty with dizziness (vertigo)
    • 7. Difficulty with auditory skills (which may include hearing
    • loss and/or processing problems)
    • 8. Difficulty with fine motor skills (dexterity)
    • 9. Difficulty in speed of processing and motor response time
    • 10. Difficulty with skills that affect eating and speaking
    • (voluntary and involuntary)
    • 11. Difficulty with bowel and/or bladder control
    • 12. Displays premature puberty
    • 13. Loss of stamina and/or sense of fatigue
    • 14. Difficulty in administering self-care (such as independent
    • feeding, grooming and toileting)
  39. required evaluation data for TBI
  40. A. Social History
    • B. Individual Intelligence (One required)
    • C. Individual Achievement (One required)
    • D. Adaptive Behavior (One required)
    • E. Communicative Abilities (Both receptive and expressive
    • required)
    • F. Other
  41. Formal assessment of the student with traumatic brain injury should include a
    _________ _____________.
    baseline evaluation
  42. It is important to consider a TBI student's
    pre-injury learning styles and knowledge base.
  43. To be eligible for special education and related services as a
    student with traumatic brain injury, the following must be
  44. 1. A written statement from a physician to include:
    • a. Diagnosis of traumatic brain injury consistent with
    • the federal definition;
    • b. Physical and school limitations;
    • c. Medication needs;
    • d. Seizure management (if applicable)
    • 2. Justification of the adverse affect on educational
    • performance which is attributed to the traumatic brain
    • injury resulting in the corresponding need for special
    • education and related services.
  45. Depending on the effects of the brain injury, students with TBI may require:
    monitoring or direct care for immediate and long-term medical and physical needs. Physical care and support may be the most crucial consideration for some students with brain injuries.
  46. "Visual impairment including blindness" means
    an impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child's educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness. This impairment refers to abnormality of the eyes, the optic nerve or the visual center for the brain resulting in decreased visual acuity.
  47. intellectual and achievement referral characteristics for visual impairment
  48. Intellectual
    • 1. Shows approximately the same distribution of scores on
    • intellectual tests as sighted individuals, when tests such as
    • auditory-vocal or haptic-motor channels of communication are
    • used
    • B. Achievement
    • 1. Has relatively normal educational achievement
    • 2. Tends to achieve more poorly in subjects such as mathematics
  49. behavioral characteristics of visual impairment
  50. 1. Appears "clumsy," especially in a new situation
    • 2. Holds head in an awkward position to look at something or holds a
    • book or other objects in a peculiar position to look at them
    • 3. "Tunes out" when information is on the chalkboard or in a book
    • which the student cannot read
    • 4. Constantly asks a neighbor to tell him/her what is going on
    • 5. Shows signs of fatigue or inattentiveness
    • 6. Exhibits poor self-concept and ego development
  51. communicative abilities of visual impairment
  52. 1. Less effective use of gesture and bodily action
    2. Uses less lip movement in the articulation of sounds
  53. physical (behavior) characteristics of visual impairment
  54. a. Rubs eyes excessively
    • b. Shuts or covers one eye, tilts head or thrusts head forward
    • c. Has difficulty in reading or in other work requiring close
    • use of the eyes
    • d. Blinks more than usual or is irritable when doing close
    • work
    • e. Holds books close to eyes
    • f. Is unable to see distant things clearly
    • g. Squints eyelids together or frowns
  55. physical appearance and complaints from visually impaired child
  56. 2. Appearance
    • a. Crossed eyes
    • b. Inflamed or watery eyes
    • c. Recurring styes
    • 3. Complaints
    • a. Eyes itch, burn or feel scratchy
    • b. Cannot see well
    • c. Dizziness, headaches, or nausea following close eye work
    • d. Blurred or double vision
  57. required evaluatin data for visual impairment
  58. A. Social History
    • B. Individual Intelligence (One required)
    • C. Individual Achievement (One required)
    • D. Adaptive Behavior (One required)
    • E. Communicative Abilities
    • F. Medical : physical exam, functional vision determination and student need for braille instruction
  59. Students with visual impairments may need instruction in or facilitated through one or more of the following:
    Braille, large print, auditory or other alternate formatted materials, computer and other technology.
Card Set
Criteria for disabilities (sl-vi)