Criteria for disabilities (MD-SLD)

  1. Multiple disabilities" means
    concomitant impairments (such as mental retardation blindness, mental retardation-orthopedic impairment, etc.), the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for one of the impairments. The term does not include deaf blindness.
  2. For a child to be identified as having multiple disabilities (MD) he/she must
    exhibit _____; and referral should be based on
    two (2) or more disabilities.

    observation of a combination of the characteristics outlined in the eligibility criteria section of this document.
  3. screening information for MD (other than hearing and vision):
  4. 1. Formal (If appropriate)
    • a. As indicated by the eligibility criteria for each category of
    • suspected disability
    • 2. Informal
    • a. Checklists
    • b. Rating scales
    • c. Anecdotal records
    • d. Basic skills inventories
    • e. Sociometric techniques
    • f. Observation
  5. required evaluation data for MD
  6. A. Social History
    • B. Individual Intelligence (One required)
    • C. Individual Achievement (One required)
    • D. Adaptive Behavior (One required)
    • E. Communicative Abilities (Both receptive and expressive required)
    • F. Other
    • 3. Medical
    • a. physical exam
    • b. specialized if indicated
  7. All areas assessed must be fully
    considered to determine :
    • (1) if two or more clinical conditions of disability are present, the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for one of the impairments;
    • (2) the child's present functional levels; and
    • (3) strengths and weaknesses for learning.
  8. The goal of a comprehensive program for children with multiple disabilities
    should be
    one of increasing their independence
  9. In developing a child's IEP with MD, it will be necessary to consider the need for instruction across several areas of learning, such as:
    sensory development, motor skills, communication skills, cognition, social development, self-care, daily living and community living activities, recreation/leisure time and vocational skills.
  10. "Orthopedic impairment" means
    a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child's educational performance. The term includes impairments caused by congenital anomaly (e.g., clubfoot, absence of some member, etc.), impairments caused by disease (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis, etc.), and impairments from other causes (e.g., cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns which cause contractures).
  11. The referral characteristics for the student with an orthopedic impairment (OI) fall more into the area of
    physical characteristics. These may include paralysis, unsteady gait, poor muscle control, loss of limb, etc. An orthopedic impairment may also impede speech production and the expressive language of the child.
  12. required evaluation data for OI
  13. A. Social History
    • B. Individual Intelligence (One required)
    • C. Individual Achievement (One required)
    • D. Adaptive Behavior (One required)
    • E. Communicative Abilities
  14. To be eligible for special education and related services as a student with an
    orthopedic impairment, the following must be present:
  15. A. A written statement from a physician establishing the type of orthopedic
    • impairment; and
    • B. An adverse affect an educational performance which is a direct result of
    • the orthopedic impairment and is not a result of architectural barriers, and
    • the corresponding need for special education and related services.
    • Once an orthopedic impairment has been identified, any barriers to the
    • student's access to education must be eliminated. Many times an adverse
    • affect on educational performance will not be present once the barriers
    • have been eliminated.
    • Evaluation data should be analyzed further to determine if learning,
    • communicative, behavioral, perceptual and/or motor problems exist which
    • may require intervention.
  16. programming considerations for OI
    • need to address such things as communication skills, academic
    • skills, perceptual and/or motor functioning, behavior and self-sufficiency. The need for augmentative/alternative communication systems and/or assistive technology must be considered when designing the student's program.
  17. "Other health impairment" means
    having limited strength, vitality or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment that is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, Tourette’s Syndrome, and sickle cell anemia; and adversely affects a child's educational performance.
  18. Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and
    attention deficit disorder (ADD) may be classified as eligible for services under
    the "other health impairment" category in instances where
    the ADD/ADHD is a chronic or acute health problem that results in limited alertness, which adversely affects the child's educational performance resulting in the need for special education and related services. While it is recognized that the disorders of ADD and ADHD vary, hereafter, the term ADD will be used to encompass both disorders.
  19. Indicators of another health impairment may or may not be
  20. The following conditions may indicate the presence of an OHI:
    (1) a long period of absence due to a chronic or acute health problem; (2) an inability to attend to task for the same length of time as peers due to a chronic or acute health problem; (3) an inability to attend to task as a result of medication being taken for a chronic or acute health problem; and/or (4) an inability to attend school for more than a few hours per day due to limited strength or vitality
  21. Required evaluation data for OHI
  22. A. Social History (Emphasis on developmental, health and medical)
    • B. Individual Intelligence (One required)
    • C. Individual Achievement (One required)
    • D. Adaptive Behavior (One required)
    • E. Communicative Abilities (Required as indicated below)
    • A comprehensive language screening measure is required. Screening
    • instruments must be established and validated for such use and assess
    • areas of receptive and expressive language. These instruments cannot be
    • single-word vocabulary measures only. Review of social, educational, and
    • communication history and/or classroom observation of communicative
    • abilities should also be utilized. If the student fails the screening or if
    • language is identified as a problem area, a diagnostic measure is required.
    • F. Other
    • 1. Medical (Required)
    • a. Physical examination (To identify any concomitant
    • conditions)
    • b. Specialized, if indicated
  23. To be eligible for special education and related services under the category of
    "other health impairment," the following must be present:
  24. A. A written statement from a physician, to include:
    • 1. The type of health impairment;
    • 2. Any school limitations; and
    • 3. The possible need for and effects of medication.
    • B. Justification of the adverse affect on educational performance which
    • is attributed to the "other health impairment" and the corresponding
    • need for special education and related services.
  25. For most types of health impairments, __ _______ _______ serves as the basis
    for classification.
    a physician's diagnosis
  26. for the student with ADD a more multidisciplinary
    approach to diagnosis is desirable. This is particularly necessary for making a
    differential diagnosis, as ADD can
    overlap with various learning and behavior disorders.
  27. The most common of overlaps for AD/HD are the conditions of
    specific learning disabilities and emotional disturbance.
  28. Children with an "other health impairment" due to chronic or acute health problems often require
    accommodations, adaptations and/or modifications in their educational program and setting.
  29. Due to the nature and extent of some health impairments, some students may need
    major modification of their school day including, but not limited to, rest periods, a shortened school day and/or flexible scheduling and services delivery.
  30. For students with ADD, an important element in designing the individualized
    education program (IEP) is addressing the student's
    observed, discrete behavioral and academic needs.
  31. The IEP of an individual with AD/HD should directly target areas for instruction in which
    improvement is desired, such as
    academic skills, social skills and classroom behavior.
  32. A behavioral management plan should be developed for an individual with AD/HD which deals with
    any disruptive and noncompliant behaviors, with an emphasis on decreasing inappropriate behaviors and increasing appropriate behaviors.
  33. For individuals with AD/HD, strategies
    which allow for _______, _____, and _______ may increase active participation of the student in the learning process
    variation in task presentation, rate and difficulty levels
  34. In designing an effective intervention program for an individual with AD/HD, the student's teacher(s) must consider:
    the classroom environment (seating arrangement, organization, class schedules), task demands (length, feedback, the student's participation level), classroom rules, communication and learning styles/strategies, and opportunities for generalization of appropriate behavior.
  35. "Specific learning disability" means
    a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell or to do mathematical calculations, including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia and developmental aphasia. The term does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural or economic disadvantage.
  36. intellectual and academic referral characteristics of SLD:
  37. A. Intellectual
    • 1. Appears to possess average or above average intelligence based on
    • standardized intelligence tests but does not perform at expected
    • achievement levels when exposed to conventional teaching
    • strategies
    • B. Academic (In general)
    • 1. Scores indicate inconsistency and great variability between
    • expectancy and performance
    • 2. Short attention span; unable to concentrate on any one task for
    • very long
    • 3. Easily distracted by irrelevant stimuli
    • 4. Disorganized in the use of books and materials
    • 5. Unable to follow and understand class discussion; appears to be
    • inattentive or daydreaming
  38. reading and writing referral characteristics of SLD:
  39. C. Reading
    • 1. Visual processing
    • a. Visual discrimination difficulties; confusion of similar
    • letters and words
    • b. Letter and word reversals and inversions
    • c. Difficulty in following and retaining visual sequences
    • d. Word substitutions
    • e. Distracted reading; skipping and jumping over words
    • f. Omission of words, phrases and sentences
    • g. Slow recognition of words
    • 2. Auditory processing
    • a. Difficulty in separating words into their component
    • phonemes and syllables or in blending them into whole
    • words
    • b. Difficulty in spontaneous recall of sounds associated with
    • letters and words
    • c. Disturbances in auditory sequencing
    • D. Writing and Drawing
    • 1. Inability to form letters or digits correctly
    • 2. Difficulty in staying on or between the lines
    • 3. Difficulty in judging length and width of letters
    • 4. Difficulty in spatial organization, identification or matching of
    • shapes, and/or rotation or distortion of drawings of geometric
    • designs
    • 5. Reversal of letters and/or digits
    • 6. Difficulty in discriminating left from right
  40. Math and Behavior characteristics of SLD:
    • E. Arithmetic
    • 1. Difficulty in analyzing and solving math problems of various
    • complexity (one or multiple step), including those involving
    • probability
    • 2. Difficulty in associating the spoken form with the correct printed
    • material
    • 3. Difficulty in learning the cardinal and ordinal system of counting
    • 4. Difficulty in understanding the meaning of the process sign
    • 5. Difficulty in understanding the arrangement of numbers on a page
    • 6. Inability to follow and remember the sequence of steps used in
    • various mathematical operations
    • 7. Difficulty with concepts of space, time, size, distance, quantity
    • and/or linear measurement
    • F. Behavior
    • 1. Hyperactivity, attentional deficits: constant motion, inability to
    • attend to a specific task for a required period of time
    • 2. Emotional lability: easily upset, anxious, low frustration threshold,
    • may exhibit rapid change from one mood to another
    • 3. Impulsivity: uninhibited, acts without thinking
    • 4. Distractibility: difficulty in attending to dominate stimuli, may
    • abnormally fixate on unimportant details
    • 5. Perseveration: attention becomes fixed upon a single task, which is
    • repeated over and over
    • 6. May frequently demonstrate an inability to assimilate, store or
    • recall visual and/or auditory stimuli; inability to identify or
    • discriminate between visual and auditory stimuli

    • 7. May be confused in his/her relationship to the physical
    • environment and become disoriented in a familiar setting such as
    • school, playground and neighborhood
    • 8. May frequently disrupt the classroom, demand attention to an
    • inappropriate degree, speak out of turn or exhibit an inability to
    • control responses
    • 9. May disregard or fail to understand the feelings of others
    • 10. May demonstrate a low tolerance for change, may react
    • inappropriately to stimuli
    • 11. May lack self-sufficiency, seldom initiates appropriate activities,
    • may have limited knowledge or acceptance of age role and may
    • compensate by acting foolish or making fun of others
    • 12. Has difficulty interpreting emotions, attitudes and intentions others
    • communicate through nonverbal aspects of communication (facial
    • expressions and body language)
  41. communicative and physical characteristics of SLD:
    • G. Communicative Abilities
    • 1. Fails to grasp simple word meanings
    • 2. Comprehends words in isolation but fails to comprehend in
    • connected speech
    • 3. Frequently uses incomplete sentences and has numerous
    • grammatical errors as evidenced by poor use of pronouns and verb
    • tenses
    • 4. Unable to organize and express ideas even when adequate
    • information is provided, relates minor or irrelevant details
    • 5. Cannot give clear and appropriate directions
    • 6. Does not recognize and understand figurative language such as
    • alliteration, similes, metaphors, personification, and idioms
    • 7. Uses gestures extensively while talking or in place of speech
    • 8. Cannot predict outcomes, make judgments, draw conclusions or
    • generate alternatives after appropriate discussion

    • 9. Has problems interpreting and/or using vocal pitch, intensity and
    • timing for purposes of communicating subtle distinctions in
    • emotions and intention
    • 10. Asks questions and/or responds to questions inappropriately
    • (especially "wh" and "how" question forms)
    • 11. Has difficulty comprehending and using linguistically complex
    • sentences
    • 12. Has problems acquiring and using grammatical rules and patterns
    • for word and sentence formation
    • 13. Has difficulty interpreting or formulating compound or complex
    • sentences (oral and written), sentences which compare and contrast
    • ideas or show cause-effect relationships
    • 14. Cannot write an organized paragraph using related sentences of
    • varying length and grammatical complexity
    • H. Physical
    • 1. General coordination poor; awkwardness evident in skipping,
    • climbing, running, walking, jumping, hopping, etc.
    • 2. May fall or stumble frequently or maintain equilibrium by
    • touching tables, chairs or desks when moving about the room
    • 3. May exhibit difficulty with fine motor coordination tasks
    • 4. May have difficulty differentiating between right and left; may
    • exhibit directional confusion, mirror-writing, reversals, inversions
    • or rotations of letters and/or numerals
  42. informal screening for SLD:
  43. a. Teacher made or criterion-referenced tests
    • b. Work samples
    • c. Observational data in classes and other settings
    • d. Anecdotal records
    • e. Rating scales
    • f. Checklists
    • g. Response to scientific, research-based intervention
  44. In evaluating a child suspected of having a specific learning disability, the multidisciplinary evaluation team must include:
    the child's regular teacher; and at least one person qualified to conduct individual diagnostic examinations of children, such as a school psychology specialist, speech-language pathologist, remedial reading teacher or special education teacher.
  45. required evaluation data
  46. A. Social History
    • B. Individual Intelligence (One required)
    • C. Individual Achievement (One required)
    • D. Adaptive Behavior (One required)
    • E. Communicative Abilities
  47. The determination of whether a child suspected of having a specific
    learning disability ,
    must be made by
    the child's parents and a team of qualified professionals, which must include -the child's regular teacher, at least on person qulified to conduct individula diagnostic examinations (school psych).
  48. The group may determine that a child has a
    specific learning disability, if -
    The child does not achieve adequately for the child's age or to meet
    State approved grade-level standards in one or more of the
    following areas, when provided with learning experiences and
    instruction appropriate for the child's age or State approved gradelevel

    • a. Oral expression;
    • b. Listening comprehension;
    • c. Written expression;
    • d. Basic reading skills;
    • e. Reading fluency skills;
    • f. Reading comprehension;
    • g. Mathematics calculation; or
    • h. Mathematics problem solving.
  49. a child may be determined to have a SLD if:
    • 2. The child does not make sufficient progress to meet age or State
    • approved grade-level standards in one or more of the areas

    • 3. The child exhibits a pattern of strengths and weaknesses in
    • performance, achievement, or both, relative to age, State-approved
    • grade-level standards, or intellectual development
    • 4. if the group determines that it is not the result of:

    • a. A visual, hearing or motor disability;
    • b. Mental retardation;
    • c. Emotional disturbance
    • d. Cultural factors;
    • e. Environmental, or economic disadvantage; or
    • f. Limited English proficiency.
    • 5. The State does not require the use of a severe discrepancy between
    • intellectual ability and achievement for determining whether a
    • child has a specific learning disability
    • 6. a discrepancy must be documented
  50. To ensure that underachievement in a child suspected of having a specific
    learning disability is not due to lack of appropriate instruction in reading
    or math, the group must consider:
  51. 1. Data that demonstrates that prior to, or as a part of, the referral
    • process the child was provided appropriate instruction in regular
    • education settings, delivered by qualified personnel; and
    • 2. Data-based documentation of repeated assessments of achievement
    • at reasonable intervals, reflecting formal assessment of student
    • progress during instruction, which was provided to the child's
    • parents.
  52. For a child suspected of having a specific learning disability, the documentation of the
    determination of eligibility, as required must
    contain a statement of -
  53. 1. Whether the child has a specific learning disability;
    • 2. The basis for making the determination including an assurance that the determination has been made in accordance
    • 3. The relevant behavior, if any, noted during the observation of the
    • child and the relationship of that behavior to the child's academic
    • functioning;
    • 4. The educationally relevant medical findings, if any;
    • 5. Whether -
    • a. The child does not achieve adequately for the child's age or
    • to meet State-approved grade-level standards and
    • b. The child does not make sufficient progress to meet age or
    • State approved grade-level standards
    • c. The child exhibits a pattern of strengths and weaknesses in
    • performance, achievement, or both, relative to age, State
    • approved grade level standards or intellectual development
    • consistent with 34 CFR 300.309(a)(2)(ii);
    • 6. The determination of the group concerning the effects of a
    • visual, hearing, or motor disability; mental retardation; emotional
    • disturbance; cultural factors; environmental, or economic
    • disadvantage; or limited English proficiency on the child's
    • achievement level; and
    • 7. If the child has participated in a process that assesses the child's
    • response to scientific, research-based intervention -
    • a. The instructional strategies used and the student-centered
    • data collected; and
    • b. The documentation that the child's parents were notified
    • about -
    • 1) The State's policies regarding the amount and nature
    • of student performance data that would be collected
    • and the general education services that would be
    • provided;
    • 2) Strategies for increasing the child's rate of learning;
    • and
    • 3) The parents' right to request an evaluation.
    • This report must be dated and each group member must certify by
    • signature whether the report reflects each member's conclusion. If
    • the report does not reflect an individual team member's conclusion,
    • the member must submit a separate statement presenting his or her
    • conclusions.
  54. students with SLD often encounter difficulty with materials used in regular classroom instruction and therefore may need:
  55. modifications in pace, content and/or
    curriculum may be necessary for those classes.
Card Set
Criteria for disabilities (MD-SLD)