Parenting Test 3

  1. Early Childhood
    • -Period of a person's life between the ages of 2 to 5
    • -Erik Erickson's psychosocial stage of initiative versus guilt
    • -Major challenge to parents is to adjust to a developing child whoe behavior and personality traits are emerging rapidly
  2. Characteristics of Young Children
    • -A time of disovery
    • -Full of energy
    • -Passion for learning (children are curious)
    • -Time of rapid cognitive development
    • -Brain and central nervous system growing rapidly
    • -Three year old's brain has twic as many synapses than adult brains
    • -Period of emerging
    • -Most important attitude to learn is that they can become involved in their world and that they can learn
    • -Sense of initiative or the feeling and confidence that "i can" make things happen (self-efficacy)
    • -Time when parents begin socialization efforts for children in earnest
    • -Child now feels pressure to conform to socially acceptable behavior and to follow rules
    • -Parents explore styles of child rearing
    • -Children learn to separate from parents
    • -Time when social roles and family interaction patterns are learned for the first time
    • -Young children learn what to expect of others and what others expect of him
    • -Children learn about parent's rules
  3. Mastering Cognitive Skills: Preoperational stage of cognitive development
    • Begin to solve problems in play and daily life
    • Active memory and information-processing skills
    • Can use elementary logic
    • Increasing use of symbolic thought
  4. Mastering Cognitive Skills: Intuitive Period of Preoperational Thought
    • Children make judgments and reach conclusions based on limited understanding of operations and rules
    • New language skills help
    • Once a point of view is accepted, it is difficult to change
    • An object's appearance is the basis for making a judgment_ "What you see is what you get"
  5. Intuitve Thought
    • 1. Appearance and reality
    • 2. Egocentrism
    • 3. Centering
    • 4. Irreversibility
    • 5. Conservation Problems
    • 6. Classification
    • 7. Animism
    • 8. Precausal Thinking
  6. Intuitive Thought: Appearance and Reality
    Define reality as what they see
  7. Intuitive Thought: Egocentrism
    Young children focus on their own viewpoint. They are unable to consider another view
  8. Intuitive Thought: Centering
    Concentrate on only one aspect of an object they see or an activity they do
  9. Intuitive Thought: Irreversibility
    Cannot understand that some operations or processes can be reversed
  10. Intuitive Thought: Conservation Problems
    Cannot understand that somethingr retains the same properties when it is rearranged or reshaped
  11. Intuitve Thought: Classification
    Accomplished by age 6, grouping things according to likenesses
  12. Intuitive Thought: Animism
    Young children believe that all things are alive
  13. Intuitive Thought: Precausal Thinking
    Often jump conclusions
  14. Language Development
    • Children typically have 10,000 words by the time are six years old
    • Are learning on average 5.5 words a day
  15. Parents can promote verbal skills by:
    • Talk a lot with children
    • Refer to many topics
    • Use a variety of words
    • Give children positive feedback about their behaviors
  16. Structure and Nurturance
    • Behavior is enhanced if parents repsond to the changing needs as the child grows
    • Parents typically repsond to distress with problem solving rather than comfort (very difficult fo the child)
    • Continue to develop initiative-- wnat to do things on their own
    • Verbal abilities continue to grow and parents use more verbal means and fewer physical methods of guidance
    • Children are taught structure of family rules and behaviors by words and by modeling
    • Several types of parental behaviors can cause guilt and shame, specifically acts that discount or belittle children
  17. Teasing
    Harmful when parent attempts to make themselves look good at the expense of the child- this would include such acts as calling a child names such as "You little brat" or "The monester"
  18. Sarcasm and Ridicule
    Damages healthy self-esteem causes confusion about how people communicate
  19. Consequences
    • Play an important role in learning
    • When they are reasonable children are more likely to learn the rules
  20. Natural Consequences
    Happen as a direct result of a particular action- you pull a cat's tail, you will probably get scratched
  21. Logical Consequences
    Happens as a reaction to the behavior but relates to the behavior. "If you spill your milk, you help clean it up."
  22. Social Development
    Process by which children are taught to conform to social rules, to acquire personal values and develop attitudes and behaviors typical or representative of their cultural environment or how we teach our children to behave in acceptable ways to live in our society
Card Set
Parenting Test 3
Parenting Test 3