The flashcards below were created by user
What is the normal level of sodium?
What is the normal level of potassium?
What is the normal level of chloride?
What is the normal level of pCO2?
What is the normal level of HCO3?
What is the normal level of TCO2?
What is the normal level of PO2?
What is metabolic alkalosis?
What is metabolic acidosis?
What is respiratory alkalosis?
What is respiratory acidosis?
How does the body compensate for metabolic alkalosis?
hypoventilation - usually quite ineffective (body wants to breathe!!)
How does the body compensate for respiratory alkalosis?
kidneys excrete more HCO
How does the body compensate for respiratory acidosis?
kidneys retain HCO
How does the body compensate for metabolic acidosis?
What is measured to determine the status of anion gap?
Sodium - 140
Chloride - 104
What is a normal anion gap?
gap of 12 +/- 4
What is the only situation anion gap is useful for evaluating?
gain of HCL or loss of HCO
= normal gap
gain of exogenous acid = increased gap
What are the causes of anion gap acidosis?
What are the causes of non-anion gap acidosis?
renal tubular acidosis
diarrhea (pancreas needs to keep producing HCO
to replace what is lost in order to keep the pH normal in the intestines. Eventually HCO
levels will go down = metabolic acidosis)
What is the normal level of magnesium?
What is the normal level of calcium?
Which electrolytes are intracellular?
What is the equation for calculating serum osmolality?
2[Na] + (Gluc/28) + (BUN/2.8)
What is the normal range for osmolality?