BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) - normal values
BUN - purpose and description
- Blood test.
- Measures urea, the end product of protein metabolism.
- May be elevated in dehydration, vomiting, diarrhea, digested blood, or prerenal/renal failure.
BUN - Related Nursing Care
- No special prep.
- If client dehydrated, the elevated levels should return to normal with hydration.
- If not, this is an indicator of renal disease.
Serum Creatinine - normal values
- 0.5-1.5 mg/dL
- (older adults may have decreased values due to decreased muscle mass.
Serum Creatinine - Description & purpose
- Blood test used to dx kidney dysfunction.
- Byproduct of muscle breakdown.
- Secreted by the kidneys.
- When 50% or more nephrons are destroyed, serum creatinine rises.
Serum Creatinine = Related Nursing Care
- No special prep is needed.
- Values may be elevated by antibiotics, ascorbic acid, L-dopa, methyldopa, and lithium carbonate.
- Value no affected by hydration status.
Routine Urinalysis - Purpose & Description
Examiniation of the constituents of a sample of urine to establish baseline, provide data for diagnosis, or monitor results of tx.
Routine UA - Related Nursing Care
- Provide a clean specimen cup for a sample of urine.
- Note if female client is menstruating.
- Assess medications, fluid status, and foods that might affect UA results.
Urine Culture (midstream, clean-catch)
Purpose and description
Used to identify the causative organism of a UTI.
UC - Normal Values
- <10,000 organisms/mL
- Some organisms are expected. While urine is sterile, the urethra contains bacteria and a few WBCs.
- Values of >100,000 organisms/mL indicate UTI.
Related Nursing Care
- Provide client with sterile container.
- Ask woman to separate labia with one hand and clean labia with the other, using sterile cotton sponges saturated with a cleansing solution, and wiping 3 times front to back.
- Ask men to retract the foreskin and cleans the glans in a circular motion away from urethra with 3 different cotton sponges with cleansing solution.