Psychology Chapter 4 Vocabulary

  1. Synesthesia
    The perceptual experience of one sense that is evoked by another sense
  2. Sensation
    Simple awareness due to the stimulation of a sense organ.
  3. Perception
    Simple awareness due to the stimulation of a sense organ
  4. Transduction
    What takes place when many sensors in the body convert physical signals from the environment into neural signals sent to the central nervous system
  5. Psychophysics
    Methods that measure the strength of a stimulus and the observer's sensitivity to that stimulus
  6. Absolute Threshold
    The minimal intensity needed to just barely detect a stimulus.
  7. Just Noticeable Difference (JND)
    The minimal change in a stimulus that can just barely be detected.
  8. Weber's Law
    The just noticeable difference of a stimulus is a constant proportion despite variations in intensity.
  9. Signal Detection Theory
    An observation that the response to a stimulus depends both on a person's sensitivity to the stimulus in the presense of noise and on a person's response criterion.
  10. Sensory Adaptation
    Sensitivity to prolonged stimulation tends to decline over time as an organism adapts to current conditions.
  11. Visual Acuity
    The ability to see fine detail
  12. Retina
    Light-sensitive tissue lining the back of the eyeball.
  13. Accommodation
    The process by which the eye maintains a clear image on the retina.
  14. Cones
    Photoreceptors that detect colour, operate under normal daylight conditions, and allow us to focus on fine detail.
  15. Rods
    Photoreceptors that become active only under low-light conditions for night vision.
  16. Fovea
    An area of the retina where vision is the clearest and there are no rods at all.
  17. Blind Spot
    An area of the retina that contains neither rods nor cones and therefore has no mechanism to sense light.
  18. Receptove Field
    The region of the sensory surface that when stimulated, causes a change in the firing rate of that neuron
  19. Trichromatic Color Representation
    The pattern of responding across the three types of cones that provides a unique code for each color.
  20. Color-Opponent System
    Pairs of visual neurons that work in opposition
  21. Area V1
    The part of the occipital lobe that contains the primary visual cortex
  22. Visual-Form Agnosia
    The inability to recognize objects by sight
  23. Perceptual Constancy
    A perceptual principle stating that even as aspects of sensory signals change, perception remains consistent.
  24. Template
    A mental representation that can be directly compared to a viewed shape in the retinal image.
  25. Monocular Depth Cues
    Aspects of a scene that yiel information about depth when viewed with only one eye.
  26. Binocular Disparity
    The difference in the retinal images of the two eyes that provides information about depth
  27. Motion Parallax
    A depth cue based on the movement of the head over time.
  28. Apparent Motion
    The perception of movement as a result of alternating signals appearing in rapid succession in different locations.
  29. Pitch
    How high or low a sound is
  30. Loudness
    A sound's intensity
  31. Timbre
    A listener's experience of sound quality or resonance
  32. Cochlea
    A fluid-filled tube that is the organ of auditory transduction
  33. Basilar Membrane
    A structure in the inner ear that undulates when vibrations from the ossicles reach the cochlear fluid.
  34. Hair Cells
    Specialized auditory receptor neurons embedded in the basilar membrane.
  35. Place Code
    The cochlea encodes different frequencies at different locations along the basilar membrane.
  36. Temporal Code
    The cochlea registers low frequencies vie the firing rate of action potentials entering the auditory nerve.
  37. Haptic Perception
    The active exploration of the environment by touching and grasping objects with our hands.
  38. Referred Pain
    Feeling of pain when sensory information from internal and external areas converge on the same nerve cells in the spinal cord.
  39. Gate-control theory
    A theory of pain perception based on the idea that signals arriving from pain receptors in the body can be stopped, or gated, by interneurons in the spinal cord via feedback from two directions.
  40. Vestibular System
    The three fluid-filled semicircular canals and adjacent organs located nect to the cochlea in each inner ear.
  41. Olfactory Receptor Neurons (ORNS)
    Receptor cells that initiate the sense of smell.
  42. Pheromones
    Biochemical odorants emitted by other members of their species that can affect an animal's behavior or physiology.
  43. Taste Buds
    The organ of taste transduction
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Psychology Chapter 4 Vocabulary