Biol152 Exam2

  1. The light reactions are located in the
    Thylakoid Membrane
  2. The Calvin Cycle occurs in the
  3. What features do mitochondria share with bacterial cells?
    Free ribosomes, DNA, Membranes with phospholipds
  4. What do you think the cytoskeleton is made of?
    Proteins, which is made of amino acids
  5. Microfilaments are involved in what in the Cytoskeleton?
    • ▪ Changes in cell shape
    • ▪ Muscle contraction
    • ▪ Cytoplasmic streaming
    • ▪ Cell motility (pseudopodia)
    • ▪ Cell division (cleavage furrow)
  6. Microtubles are involved in what in the Cytoskeleton?
    • Move the chilla and flagella
    • Maintain cell shape
    • Choromosome Movements
    • Organelle Movements
  7. Intermediate filaments....
    • Anchor Organelles
    • Involved in the formation of nuclear lamina
  8. Intercellular Junctions in Plants are
    Continuous cytoplasms/membranes
  9. Intercellular Junctions in Animal Cells are...
    • • Tight Junctions: Ex. Epithelial Cell
    • • Desmosomes: Ex. Epithelial cells, holds your cells together.
    • • Gap Junctions: Ex. Heart Muscles, Animal Embryos
  10. Cells are small because
    they are limited by the food they can take in
  11. A cell that is actively involved in exchanging a lot of material with their surrooundings wouldbe expected to have a . . .
    a large surface are to volume ratio
  12. How is the cell wall similar between Eu and Prokaryotes?
    • Cell Shape
    • Physical Protection
    • Osmoregulation
  13. How is the cell wall different between Eu and Prokaryotes?
    • The structual components.
    • Eukaryotes: cellulose or chitin
    • Prokaryotes:
    • ◦ Bacteria: Peptidoglycan
    • ◦ Archaea: Variety of polysaccharides and proteins
  14. Do cell walls prevent cells from dying in hypertonic solutions?
  15. How do you think immune cells recognize foreign cells?
    They read the proteins, carbohydrates and libids that are attached to the membrane
  16. A cells is Gram Positive if...
    it has a peptidoglycan layer
  17. Gram Negative bacteria:
    • Has an extra layer before the peptidoglycan layer
    • Are more pathogenic
  18. Pili and Fimbriae
    • Made of proteins.
    • Hairlike appendages
    • Attach to certain cells, bacteria to each other, exchanging genetic material between bacteria
    • Called Sex pilots
  19. Flagella
    • Help move the cell
    • Very different between Eu and Prokaryotes
    • In Prokaryotes, made of filament and connected to the cell membrane
    • In Eukaryotes, made of a cell membrane that is filled with microtubules and is not connected.
  20. What shape is the DNA in Bacteria and Eukaryotes?
  21. Plasmid
    "in case of" DNA
  22. Do ribosome fucntion similarly in pro and eukaryotes?
  23. Extremophiles
    love extream environments
  24. Extreme thermophiles
  25. Extreme halophiles
  26. Methanogens
    • Prokaryote
    • Live in stumachs of termites and cows
    • Use CO2 to oxidize H2, releasing methane
  27. Why are Archaea and Bacteria Fundamentally Different
    • Cell wall
    • Plasma Membrane
    • Ribosomes
    • RNA Polymerases
  28. Viruses
    • not living!!
    • DNA surrounded by a protein coat
    • Does not have ribosomes or a plasma membrane
    • Ia parasite
    • Bacteriophage
  29. Viroid
    • Infectious particels
    • lack coat protein
    • short circular strands of RNA
  30. Prions
    consists only of protein
  31. Living cells require Energy t/f
  32. Kenetic Energy
    • Heat, thermal energy
    • Light
  33. Potential Energy
    • Chemical Energy
    • food/glucose
  34. First law of conservation of energy
    Energy cannot be created nor distroyed
  35. Second law of thermodynamics
    • During energy transfer/transformation
    • Some energy becomes unusable
  36. ATP is used to drive nearly all cellular activities
  37. Movement of molecules against a concentration gradient....
    Requires Energy
  38. Electrogenic Pumps
    • Sodium (Na+) Potasium(K+) pump
    • More Na+ out
    • Generates voltage
    • 3 out 2 in
  39. The Proton Pump
    • Main electrogenic pump
    • Protons= H+
    • Store Energy for cells
    • Electrochemical gradient
  40. Voltages across the plasma membrane are...
    • the result of concentration gradients
    • used by the cells as an energy source
    • referred to asmembrane potential.
  41. Proton pumps, sodium potassium pump, active transport
    all require energy
  42. Exergonic Reactions
    energy out
  43. Endogonic Reactions
    • Energy in
    • Absorbs/requires energy
  44. Catabolic Pathways:
    release energy
  45. Anabolic Pathways:
    use energy
  46. Activation Energy
    Reactants pushed into transition states
  47. Enzymes + Actiation Energy =
    • Enzymes lower the activation energy
    • reaction is more likely to occur
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Biol152 Exam2
study cards for jenning's exam 2