Digestive System - 1

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    • A) stomach
    • B) Esophagus
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    acinar cell of pancreas
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    • A) stomach
    • B) esophagus
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    Esophagus circular muscle fiber
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    esophogus lamina propria
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    esophagus lamina propria
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    esophagus muscular mucosa
  9. Function of Digestive System
    • 1. Protection
    • 2. Digestive processes
  10. What does the digestive system protect from?
    • 1. corrosive effect of digest. acid and enzyme
    • 2. mechanical stress such as abrasion
    • 3. bacteria
  11. what are the digestive processes?
    • 1. ingestion- take food in by mouth
    • 2. digestion- chemical breakdown
    • 3. secretion- release water, acid, buffer, enzymes into lumen tract
    • 4. absorption- passage of end product of digestion from GI tract into blood or lymph
    • 5. excretion- removal of waste product
  12. define defecation?
    emptying of rectum
  13. what is mechanical processing?
    mechanical processing- breaks from big peices to small pieces and how we propel the food through digestive system.
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    esophagus lamina propria
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    esophagus muscularis mucosa
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    esophagus muscularis mucosa
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    esophagus stratified squamous epithelium
  18. What layers form the Mucosa layer of GI tract?
    • 1) Epithelium
    • 2) Lamina Propria
    • 3) Muscularis Mucosa
  19. What layers form the GI tract from inner to outer?
    • 1) lumen
    • 2) Mucosa
    • 3) Submucosa
    • 4) Muscularis
    • 5) Serosa
  20. Describe 3 layers of Mucosa?
    1) Epithelium- (stratified squamous) in mouth, pharnyx, esophagus, anus. (simple collumnar) in rest. Goblet cells secrete mucous onto cell surfaces. enteroendocrine cells secrete hormones

    • 2) Lamina Propria- thin layer areolar tissue
    • 3) muscularis mucosa- thin layer smooth muscle contains circular and longitudinal fibers which cause folds in muscularis layer which increases movement and absorption.
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    esophagus adventitia
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    esophagus epithelium (stratified squamous)
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    esophagus epithelium (stratified squamous)
  24. Histology of submucosa and fxn?
    Dense irregular connective tissue containing exocrine glands and lymphatic tissue.

    controls vasoconstriction adn local movement by muscularis mucosa smooth muscle.
  25. what is serosa? adventitia?
    serosa- serous membrane covering all organs or walls of cavity not open to outside. secretes slippery fluid that is formed of simple squamous epithelium

    adventitia- fibrous connective tissue
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    esophagus longitudinal muscle fiber
  27. Digestion refers to:
    chemical breakdown of food
  28. functions of digestion?
    • mechanical processing
    • absorption
    • compaction
    • ingestion
  29. intestinal hormone that stimulates secretion of duodenal glands?
  30. portion of small intestine attaching to large instestine?
  31. what triggers gastric secretion of gastric phase?
    entry of food into stomach
  32. what does enteroendocrine cells of stomach secrete?
  33. if a decrease level of bile salt in bile what does it interfere with?
    digestion of fat
  34. which is greater?
    pH of blood in gastric veins during digestion of large meal or following a fast?
    during digestion of large meal. This is when pH is stimulated
  35. if duodenal papilla blocked what would happen?
    • interfere with neutralization of chyme
    • decrease protien digestion
    • decrease carb digestion
    • impair fat digestion
  36. what are plicae circulares?
    transverse folds in mucosa and submucosa of sm intestine
  37. what are gastric pits?
    pockets in lining of stomach that contain secretory cells
  38. what is myenteric plexus?
    network of neurons
  39. intestinal hormone stimulates pancreas to release watery secretion high in bicarbonate ion?
  40. Intestinal phase of gastric digestion include?
    • conrol rate of gastric emptying
    • neural and endocrine reflexes involved
    • help ensure functions of sm intestine work with effeciency
    • begins when chyme enters sm intestine
  41. when chyme reaches duodenum what happens?
    blood levels of secretin increase
  42. if parotid gland duct is blocked?
    interferes with carb digestion in mouth.
  43. what does pepsin enzyme digests?
  44. where are sensory nerve cells, parasympathetic ganglia and sympathetic postganglionic fibers found?
    submucosal plexus
  45. the pancrease secretes what fluid in response to secretin?
    rich in bicarbonate
  46. intestine hormone stimulates gallbladder to release bile?
    Cholecystokinin (CCK)
  47. pancrease secretes fluid in response to cholecystokinin?
    rich in enzymes
  48. which cranial nerves control motor fibers responsible for digestion?
    cranial nerve X
  49. if muscularis mucosa is contracted what happens?
    shape of intestinal lumen altered and epithelial pleats adn folds move.
  50. what does gastroileal reflex do?
    make room for more intestinal content by moving chyme to colon
  51. modifcation of digestive epithelium that allows expansion of organ
    presence of folds or pleats
  52. proteinase produced in stomachs of babies so they can digest milk?
  53. intestinal hormone stimulate release of insulin form pancreatic islet ?
    gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)
  54. why is stomach able to distend as it recieves food?
    • 1. loose tissue in form of rugae.
    • 2. smooth muscle of stomach is elastic
    • 3. increase of sympathetic stimulation druing filling of stomach to decrease tonus of gastric smooth muscle
    • 4. mucosa of stomach is elastic
  55. fxn of large intestine?
    reabsorption of water and compaction of feces
  56. if carbonic anhydrase in parietal cells are blocked?
    high pH during gastric digestion
  57. what do lacteals do?
    carry product of digestion that wont pass through walls of blood capillaries
  58. peristalsis?
    waves of muscle contraction tha propel contents of digestive tract from one point to another
  59. intestine hormone stimulates parietal cells and chief cells in stomach to secrete what fluid?
    intestinal gastrin
  60. if hormone cholecystokinin is blocked ?
    composition of pancreatic secretion affected
  61. where carb digestion begins?
  62. disease that causes large portion of gastric mucosa to atrophy, resulting in less secretion by gastric glands.
    anemia (intrinsic factor necessary for RBC production)
  63. what regulates digestive system activities?
    • hormones
    • parasympathetic/sympathetic neurons
    • contents of digestive tract
  64. plicae and intestinal villi do what?
    increase surface area of mucosa of small intestine
  65. which is false about the secretions from salivary glands?

    D) contain enzymes for digestion of lipid
  66. what does enterokinase do?
    activates protien digesting enzymes
  67. function of oral cavity?
    • 1. analyze material before swallow
    • 2. lubrication
    • 3. mechanical processing of food
    • 4. digest carb
  68. what happens during deglutition?
    • soft palate elevates
    • upper esophageal sphincter opens
  69. salivation d/t stimulation of tongue is a result of what ?
    parasympathetic innervation
  70. most products of fat digestion are absorbed by ?
    lympghatic vessels
  71. what enhances absorption effectiveness of small intestine?
    • 1. plicae circulares
    • 2. microvilli
    • 3. intestinal movement
    • 4. villi
  72. what makes up exocrine portion of pancreas?
    pancreatidc acini
  73. when is pharyngeal phase initiated?
    bolus comes in contact with pharyngeal arches
  74. function of toungue?
    • 1. mechanical processing food
    • 2. manipulation of food
    • 3. sensory analysis of food
    • 4. aiding in speech
  75. is pharyngeal phase voluntary or involuntary?
  76. what happens during deglutition?
    • breathing stops and airways open
    • vocal cords close
    • lower esophogeal sphincter contracts
    • soft palate lifts
  77. what is responsible for primary water absorption?
    large intestine
  78. do salavary glands contain enzymes for digestion of simple sugar?
  79. portion of small intestine attached to pylorus of stomach?
  80. location of digestive organs?
    • pancrease extends from duodenum to spleen
    • gallbladder is on undersurface of right lobe of liver
    • middle part of small intestine is called jejunum
  81. which teeth are blade shaped for cutting or chopping?
  82. function of liver?
    • synthesis and secretion of bile
    • synthesis of plasma protien
    • inactivation of toxin
    • storage of glycogen adn lipid reserves
  83. hormone NOT associated with small intestine?
    intrinsic factor
  84. function of digestive tract lining?
    • safeguard nearby tissue
    • digest swallowed bacteria
    • protect from digestive acid
    • protect from abrasion
  85. which process is ENTIRELY under nervous control?
  86. what happens during cephalic phase of gastric digestion?
    sight, smell, though,or taste trigger parasympathetic impulses
  87. function of Kupffer cell of liver
    they are phagocytic
  88. which teeth are pointed and adapted for tearing and shreddding?
  89. what stimulates gastric emptying?
    • distention of stomach
    • gastrin
    • partially digested protien
    • vagus nerve
  90. organ responsible for dehydration and compaction of indigestible material?
    large intestine
  91. function of salivary secretion?
    • aid in chewing and swallow
    • initiate digestion of starch
    • needed for taste
    • moisten and lubricate food
  92. example of mastication?
    mechanical digestion
  93. what does pancreas produce?
    • lipases and amylase
    • nucleases
    • peptidases and protienases
  94. structures containing goblet cells?
    • stomach
    • transverse colon
    • small and large intestine
  95. which teeth are with flattened crowns and prominent ridges for grinding?
  96. where absorption of nutrients happens?
    small intestine
  97. teeth also known as canines?
  98. primary chemical digestion in large intestine will happen because of what enzyme
    bacterial enzyme
  99. pancreas produces why type of enzyme in form of proenzyme?
  100. what is segmentation?
    chyme and digestive juices mixing by localized contractions of muscularis of sm intestine
  101. function of canine or cuspid ?
    tearing and ripping
  102. function of stomach?
    • store ingested food
    • denaturation of protien
    • initiation of protien digestion
    • mechanical breakdown of food
  103. middle portion of small intestine?
  104. where is bile stored?
  105. muscularis layer contains what muscles?
    • skeletal muscle
    • smooth muscle
    • (so has both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation)
  106. plica cirularis?
    folds that can NOT stretch, and only for increasing surface area for absorption.
  107. which teeth will crush, mash and grind food when it enters mouth?
  108. what is secreted by parietal cells?
    hydrochloric acid
  109. which organ is in charge of digestion and absorption of nutrients?
    small intestine
  110. where are brush border enzymes found?
    small intestine
  111. does mucosa of large intestine have villa and plica?
    no it is smooth with no villa or plica
  112. what fluid do goblet cells secrete?
  113. what hormone stimulates the secretion of the stomach and contraction of stomach wall?
  114. when does peristalsis occur?
    during esophageal phase of deglutition
  115. what fluid do cheif cells secrete?
  116. what hormone is required for absorption of vitamin b12?
    intrinsic factor
  117. what hormone controls emptying bile from gallbladder?
  118. what happens when hydrolytic reactions catalyze trypsin?
    peptides are produced
  119. retroperitoneal organs (list)?
    • Duodenum
    • Pancreas
    • Kidneys
    • Adrenal glands
    • Bladder
    • Ascending colon
    • Descending colon
    • Rectum
  120. permanent teeth are called ?
    secondary dentition
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    anal canal
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    anal canal
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    branch of hepatic portal vein
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    branch of hepatic portal vein
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    labial frenulum
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    palatoglossal arch
Card Set
Digestive System - 1
Anatomy and function of Digestive System