Music History Test 2

  1. Franz Josef Haydn (1732-1809)
    • - Born in Rohrau , Austria (now in Hungary )
    • - Humble family
    • - Father = wheelright, amateur harpist
    • - Mother = cook & market inspector
    • - FJH studied violin with cousin
    • - 1740, scholarship at St. Stephen’s School, Vienna
    • - boy soprano in Imperial Choir until voice changed, then earned meager living as accompanist
    • - lived in an attic
    • - met METASTASIO (Europe’s most popular librettist of the century), mentor to FJH
    • - FJH began composing for keyboard & voice
  2. FJH's Career as Court Musician
    • - 1758: Kapellmeister for his first patron, count Ferdinand Morzin (Vienna & Bohemia)
    • - Kapellmeister – in charge of all music in a court
    • - FJH’s 1st symphonies written for Morzin

    1761, PRINCE PAUL ANTON ESTERHAZY hears FJH’s music, hires FJH away from Morzin

    - Esterhazy aristocrats become lifelong patrons for FJH

    FJH hired as vice Kapellmeister, but really in charge (head K. was elderly and almost to retirement age

    • - CONTRACT PROVISIONS specify duties
    • - FJH essentially = servant
  3. FJH's Career at Esterhaza
    - 1762, Paul Anton dies, his successor NICHOLAS, “The Magnificent,” builds Esterhaza

    Huge palatial estate, modeled on Versailles with military barracks, chapel, 2 theaters (opera, marionettes), music rooms (=recital halls)

    • - Esterhaza was isolated, intended for prince’s hunting
    • - But under FJH’s direction, it became a cultural center rivaling Vienna

    FJH claimed he “had no choice but to become original” because he was isolated
  4. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
    • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (WAM)
    • (1756-1791)

    • -b. Salzburg, then Bavaria = Germany
    • WAM's, Leopold, was a violinist and composer; his patron was an archbishop; pub. treatise on
    • violin playing, 1756
    • -Leopold taught WAM's sister Maria Anna ("Nannerl"), 4 years older than WAM
    • -both were greatest prodigies

    • Mozart's Career as a Prodigy
    • -Age 4, photographic memory
    • -Age 5, composes for clavier; Leopold sacrifices career to promote his children
    • -Age 6, plays violin and organ for Bavarian elector, then Austrian Emperor (Munich)
    • -Age 7, begins 3 1/2 year tour of Europe's capitals, played for Marie Antoinette, J.C. Bach,
    • and King George
    • -12 thru 14, composes in serious genre (back in Salzburg)
    • -Age 14, WAM tours Italy
    • WAM 'steals' Allegri's Miserere from Pope, tested by Padre Martini
    • conducts own opera in Milan
    • -Goal of all tours (obtain prestigious court appointment) unattained
    • -Age 17, FJH's music motivates WAM to work harder
    • -Age 22, visits Paris, mother dies there, but WAM still composes many works
  5. Ludwig van Beethoven
    • Arguably Western music’s most influential composer, during and after lifetime
    • Life and music customarily divided into 3 periods

    • Early (1770-1802)
    • Middle (1802-1815)
    • Late (1815-1827)

    • born in Bonn, Germany
    • Dutch descent; name = Louis of the Beet Garden
    • Grandfather and father were choral musicians at court of Elector Franz Maximilian (early patron)
    • LvB 1st studied with father
    • then studied with Christian Gottlieb Neefe, university professor, who introduced LvB to music of JS Bach, encouraged improvising
    • Prodigy at age 8
    • first public performance was at age 8 (father lied and told people he was 6)
    • age 12: published first composition (variations), became a court employee
    • age 17: plays for WAM in Vienna
    • age 20: FJH invites LvB to Vienna
    • 1792: LvB moves to Vienna to “receive Mozart’s spirit through Haydn’s hands” (Count Waldstein)
    • FJH probably preocuupied
    • LvB studied ‘secretly” with others until 1795
    • LvB, unlike WAM, had letters of introduction to Viennese aristocrats, who supported him with $$, essential services

    Lvb’s early-period music divides into two parts

    • 1: Bonn and 1st Vienna comps. = WoO (Werke ohne Opuszahl [Works withough Opus no.])
    • 2: Works LvB thought worthy of Op. nos
  6. Bonn
    • birthplace of Beethoven
    • one of two cities where Beethoven composed works not worthy of opus numbers
  7. Heiligenstadt
    - 1802: following doctor’s advice, LvB spent time in Heiligenstadt, a small, quiet town north of Vienna

    • LvB’s will in form of letter to his brothers
    • Acknoledged severe deafness
    • Had considered sucicide
    • But “his art” held him back
  8. London
    Johann Peter Solomon

    • German violinist and impresario (agent)
    • living in London since 1781
    • promises FJH money and fame if he will visit London
    • FJH makes 2 trips (1791 and 1794)

    FJH writes 12 London Symphonies, 6 per trip, nos. 93-104

    • large orchestra, 80+, brasses, timpani, and clarinets
    • FJH and JPS share conducting duties

    1974, while FJH in London, Prince Anton dies, Successor, Nicholas II

    • persuades FJH to return to service
    • but FJH now dictates terms

    FJH agrees to write 1 mass per year for Princess Maria’s name day

    • FJH’s interests in sacred choral music awakened in London, after he heard Handel’s oratorios
    • Oratorio = genre for chorus, orchestra, vocal soloists, (organ if available)

    biblical story, operatic techniques

    FJH completed 2 oratorios in last decade of his life
  9. Paris
  10. 1785-6, FJH wrote 6 “Paris” symphonies for the Lage Olympique (Olympic Lodge) = freemasons who ran public concert series
  11. Rohrau
    birthplace of Haydn
  12. Salzburg
    • birthplace of Mozart
    • here he composed in serious genre ages 12-14
  13. St. Stephen's School
    • Haydn earned a scholarship there at age 8 (1740)
    • in Vienna
Card Set
Music History Test 2
Music History Test 2