Chapter 16

  1. Transformation
    • Change in genotype and phenotype due to the
    • adjustment of external DNA by a cell
  2. Bacteriophages
    Viruses that infect bacteria aka phages
  3. Semi-conservative Model
    • Type of DNA replication in which the replicated
    • double helix consists of 1 old strand, derived from the old molecule, and one
    • newly made strand
  4. DNA Polymerase
    • Elongation of new DNA at a replication fork is
    • catalyzed by enzymes
  5. Leading Strand
    • The DNA strand along the template strand in the
    • 5’→ 3’ direction
  6. Lagging Strand
    • A discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that
    • elongates in a direction away from the replication fork
  7. Okazaki fragments
    • Segments of the lagging strand, named after the
    • Japanese scientist who discovered them
  8. DNA ligase
    • It joins the sugar-phosphate backbones of the
    • Okazaki fragments, forming a single new DNA strand
  9. Primer
    • The initial nucleotide chain that consist of
    • either DNA or RNA
  10. Primase
    • An enzyme that can start an RNA chain from
    • scratch
  11. Helicase
    • An enzyme that untwist the double helix at the
    • replication forks, separating the 2 parental strands and making them available
    • as template strands
  12. Nuclease
    • Segment of the strand containing the damage that
    • is cut out by a DNA-cutting enzyme
  13. Mismatch repair
    • Cells that use special enzymes to fix
    • incorrectly paired nucleotides
  14. Nucleotide excision repair
    • The process of removing and then correctly
    • replacing a damaged segment of DNA using the undamaged strand as a guide
  15. Telomeres
    • Eukaryotic chromosomal DNA molecules that have
    • nucleotide sequences
  16. Telomerase
    • An enzyme that catalyzes the lengthening of
    • telomeres in eukaryotic germ cells
Card Set
Chapter 16
Molecular Cell Biology