Psychology Exam 2

  1. Sensation
    Is the detection of basic stimuli from the enviroment through the sense
  2. What specialized cells are stimulated by energy?
    Sensory receptors
  3. Transduction
    The process in which a form of physical energy is converted into a neural code that be processed by the nervous system
  4. Absolute Threshold
    smallest possible strength of a stimulus that can be detected half the time
  5. Just Noticeable Difference
    (Differecnce Threshold)
    smalles possible difference between two stimuli that can be detected half the time
  6. Weber's Law
    The size of the JND is a constant proportion of the size of the initial stimuli
  7. Sensory Adaptation
    Gradual decline in sensitivity to a constant stimulus
  8. Seasoning in food is an example of
    Sensory Adaptation
  9. Perception
    process by which the brain organizes, interprets and relates new date to existing knowledge
  10. Bottome Up processing
    to generate a perception based on the constituent parts

    Data Driven
  11. Top Down Processing
    TO genenrate a perception based on a concept or idea

    Conceptually driven
  12. Principles of Gestalt
    Organizing stimuli into a perception
  13. Max Wertheimer
    Founder of the Gestalt School
  14. Similiarity is?
    • Gestalt Priniciple
    • Similiar objects are viewed as a unit
  15. Closure is?
    • Gestalt Principle
    • Tendency to fill in the gaps
  16. Continuity is?
    • Gestalt Principle
    • Expectaion that lines and movments will continue in a given direction
  17. Proximity
    Objects that are near to one another are viewed as a part of a unit
  18. Subliminal Perception
    Stimuli that are below the level of concious awareness
  19. Does not create a profound influence on behavior or experience
    Subliminal Perception
  20. Can bias a person's emotions, thought and attitudes about something temporarily
    Subliminal Perception
  21. When people are repeatedly exposed to a stimulus, their liking for that stimuli increases is called?
    Mere Exposure Effect
  22. Personal awarenss of mental activity, internak sensations, and the world around us is known as?
  23. Concieved of as a stream because it is ceasless but changing is know as?
  24. Conciousness varies by degrees and is referred to as?
  25. Alertness varies throught the day, when is it at its peak? when is it at its lowest?
    • 8 or 9 am & 8 or 9 pm
    • 3 pm and 3 am
  26. Variations in body that occur over a 24 hour period
    Circadian rhythm
  27. How many known biorhythms are there?
  28. Biorhythms are Synchronized by which part of the brain
  29. Considered to be the body's clock within the hypothalamus
    Suprachiasmatic nuclues
  30. What Keeps the body's rhythms connected with the enviroment, regulates sleep, and helps melatonin secretion?
    Suprachiasmiatic nucleus
  31. One of the more prominant biorhythms, growth is screted during this time
  32. What levels dimish as the day prgresses?
  33. What causes drowsiness and when diminishes allows the person to become more alert?
  34. How are melatonin levels regulated?
    • Light stimulates the optics nerve
    • Optic nerves are monitered by the SCN
    • Ones the SCN detects increased light it triggers the pineal gland to dimish melatonin production
  35. Effect of being disconnected from indications of date, day, or hour and causes the circadian rhythm to become desunchronized?
    Free Running
  36. Free running casues people to droft into the natural rhythm of the SCN which is?
    25 hours lunar month
  37. Who discovered the EEG in 1920 as wells as frequency and intensity?
    Hans Berger
  38. Discovered the Beta and Alpha waves, sleep cycles, and REM sleep?
  39. low intesity, very high frequency waves, relaxed in preparation of sleep
    Beta Waves
  40. Drowsiness but not yet asleep, calm or meditative state
    Alpha Waves
  41. Stage 1
    • Mixture of beta and alpha waves
    • light sleep, high frequency, low intensity brain waves
  42. Stage 2
    • Theta, and beginning of Delta waves
    • Sleep Spindles, burst of high frequency, high intensity brain waves
    • Accompanied by Myoclonic Jerk
    • Entry to true sleep
  43. Stage 3
    Some delta waves, low frequency high intesity brain waves
  44. Stage 4
    • Deep Restorattive Sleep
    • a lot of Delta Waves
  45. Rapis Eye Movement Sleep
  46. Sleep Need across a life span
    • Decreaes with time
    • National Average 8 1/2 hrs
    • 6 hrs by age 60
  47. Restores the body
    Non-Rem Sleep
  48. Consolidates Memory
    REM sleep
  49. inability to initiate or maintain sleep
  50. Interupted sleep Breathing
    Sleep APnea
  51. Sleep Walking, 25% of children have one episode
  52. Pavors Nocturn
    Night Terros
  53. Brain fails to supress voluntary movement, patient acts out dreams
    REM sleep behavior disorder
  54. Sleep attacks, cataplexy, hypnogogic hallucinations, sleep attacks, and sleep paralysis
  55. this theory dreams includes, wish fulfillment, royal road to the unconcious, Manifest content, latent content, and symbols
    Freud's theory
  56. the obvious content in the ectual dream image
    Manifest COntent
  57. hidden contenct underlying meaning of the dream
    Latent Content
  58. object which representation of something repressed through unconcious association
  59. Who devised the access to unconcious idea in which the patients reports every thought w/o omition
    Freud, Free Association
  60. A student who dreud that would be his succesor
    Carl Jung
  61. What counts did freud and jund disagree on?
    • the uncocious was wise instead of bad
    • Dream could not be reduced to symbold of sexual conflict
    • Amplification instead of Free Association
  62. Symbols that imply something more than is, and a wider unconcious aspect that is never precisely defined or fully explained
  63. This view says each person has a personal unconcious as did freud, that dream create wholeness completion and individuation, and that each person has a collective unconcious with symbold shares among all humans
    Jung's view of the unconcious
  64. The unconcious is the oppostie of the concious mind
    THe principal of opposites
  65. Unconcious balances Conciousness
    The principal of compensation
  66. If Dream interpretation requires among other things specialized knowledge of mythology, folklore, fairy talkes, psychology of primitives, and comperative religion, it is know as/
  67. This balance includes, anima and animus, which can be negative or positive
    Male/ Female Balance
  68. Dreams are the subjective awareness of the brains own internally generated signals
    Hobson's Activation Synthesis Model
  69. Part of the Hobson's Activation Synthesis Model, which part of the brian sends randon sensations and images from the Pons?
  70. Part of the Activation synthesis model, which lobe assigns meaning to the sensation?
    Parietal Lobe
  71. Dream are complied from the resulting stimulations such as
    memories, emotions, Sensation
  72. THe primary visual cortes and frontal lobe that have to do with logic and relaity testing is?
    Inactive during dreams
  73. this part of the brain is high active during dreams
    primitive brain, amygdala and hippocampus
  74. Freuds SUmmarized Dream theory
    • Dreams are symbolized expressions of the unconcious
    • THey can be used to identify and relieve psychosexual conflict
  75. Jung's summarized dream theory
    • Dream are symbolic expressions of the unconcious
    • THey can be used to increase wholeness, balance, and individuation
  76. Hobson dream theory summerized
    • Dreams are activated by the random stimulation from the pons
    • sotry line are synthesized by the cortex
    • Dreams mean nothing
  77. Tolerance
    Increasing amonunts of sunsctance needed to get the desired effect
  78. withdrawl
    person gets sick when the substance is discontinued
  79. LD 50
    The dosage of a substance at which 50% of the tests subject die
  80. Learning
    Relatively permant change in behavior resulting from exprience
  81. Psychologist believe all behavior is...
  82. We begin to learn while in the...
  83. Helpful behavior can be---- and maladaptive behavior can be----
    Learned, eliminated
  84. Ivan Pavlov discovered? which means? and has to do with?
    • Classical Conditioning
    • Establishing conditions under which a specific behavior is likely to occur
    • Reflex, a simple involuntary response to a specific stimuli
  85. Means of eliminating a learned response, procedure involves presenting the CS without ever pairing it witht he UCS, the CR become Weaker until it disappears entirely
  86. at some future time the subject will suddenly resume the CR, and if it is paired with the UCS is will be fully reinstated
    Spontaneous Recovery
  87. When the extinction procesure is initiated the subject responds initially my greatly increasing the frequency of CR (things get worse before the get start working)
    Extinction Burst
  88. A well established CS can be used as an UCS to produce new Conditioned Responses
    Higher Order Conditioning
  89. a stimuli similiar to the original CS will elicit the CR
    Stimulus Generalization
  90. Leanirng to make fine dictinction between similiar stimuli
  91. Factor Affecting Conditioning
    Frequency and Times elapse between neutral and UCS
  92. The first American Behaviorists, published in Hournal of Experimental Psychology, and Performed the case of Little ALbert
    J.B Watson
  93. The case of Little Albert
    Classical conditioning can be used to deliberately establish a conditioned emotional response in a human subject

    • Rat (NS) + Clang (UCS )=Fear (UCR)
    • Rat (CS )=Fear (CR)
  94. Presents Food aversion as a Classical Conditioning
    John Garcia
  95. Food aversion are unique because
    THey violate both rules of frequency AND time lapse

    • eat food once (single trial learning)
    • food makes htem sick hours later (Time lapse more than 1/2 a second.
  96. an organism is innately predisposed to form
    certain associations. If the particular association is not one the organism is
    prepared to form then the association can be formed only with great difficulty
    Biological Preparedness
  97. discovered that animal behavior patterns can be modified by controlling the consequences
    of the behavior, who discovered it, and what is it?
    B.F Skinner, operant Conditioning
  98. A reinforcer is anything that causes a behavior to reoccur.
  99. Positive reinforcement mean
  100. Negative Reinforcement
    an aversive stimuli, something we will act to avoid or escape. Give some examples.

    Avoid something, taking pills for headache, negative reinforcer pain, take pills
  101. Punishments
    Turns off behavior
  102. Effect of punishment
    – Causes retaliation

    – Deteriorates relationship quality

    – Results in avoidance or passive aggressive behavior
  103. punishment works if
    • The subject is
    • smaller or less powerful than the person inflicting the punishment.

    • The subject can
    • not escape the punishment.

    • The punishment
    • must continually be refreshed.
  104. based on the number of target behaviors the
    subject is required to perform before a reinforcer is given
    Fixed ratio
  105. every time the behavior occurs, it is reinforced.
    Continous Reinforcement
  106. Useful for skill acquisition
    Continuous Rations
  107. Fixed ratio draw backs
    • Expense and the tendency
    • for something to lose its reinforcement value.
  108. useful for maintaining a particular behavior (motivation) behavior must increase for reinforcement
    Extended ratio
  109. Based on passage of time
    • Interval
    • unit of time (hours,min,seconds)
  110. Number of target Behaviors exhibited
  111. To gain control of a behavior
    Use a 1-1 continous reinforcement schedule (FR-1)
  112. schedule constructed in the which the plan is to cary the number of target behaviors required of a subject before each reinforcement
    Variable Ration
  113. Make the most durable behavior
    Variable Ratio
  114. subject reinforced every so many minutes, hours, days or weeks wohtout regard for number of target behavior
    Fixed interval
  115. means the amount of time between reinforcers varies
    Variable interval
  116. Reinforcing close apporximation of the desired behaviors intil the target behavior is achieved, also known as succesive approximation
    Behavior Shaping
  117. Focused on locus of control, the role of expectations in learning
    Julian Rotter
  118. Focused on Leanred helplessness, the role of beliefs in learning, shuttle box experiment with dogs
    Martin Seligman
  119. Focused on observational learning, the roles of schema's in learning, did bobo doll experiment
    Albert Bandura
  120. One's beleif about whi is in control over one's behavior
    Locus of control
  121. Concept of locus of control, in which the individual is in control
  122. Extenalizer
    The external is in control
  123. Expectations influence effort
    Learned Helplessness
  124. When someone observes a behavior sequence, a schema is formed. Imitation will occur if:
    Capable of doing action
    Expect reinforcement for bahvior performance
    Process of modeling
Card Set
Psychology Exam 2
chapters 3-5