which plant provided the first camera flash
what is the most primitive vascular plant?
Psilotum (wisk fern)only stems. No leaves or roots.
Lycopodium common name
Selaginella common name
Psilotum common name
Equisetum common name
In the life cycle of mosses, which stage is
First stage in the development of a moss gametophyte (will look like algae)
All spores are the same
Male and female spores. Microspores and megaspores (Selaginella and Isoetes)
Are seed plants homosporous or heterosporous?
All are heterosporous
Which fern allies have a subterranean
Psilotum (whisk fern), Lycopodium (club moss)
Which fern allies have silicon in their cell
Equisetum (horse tails, scouring rushes). Cells filled with silicon
What is a microphyll?
What is a megaphyll?
What is a frond? Which plant does it apply to?
A complex leaf on a fern which is responsible for photosynthesis and reproduction. Spores are produced under the frond.
What is a strobili?
A cone structure where spores are born. On lycopodium (club mosses)
What is a sorus?
Clusters of spore-producing sporangia located on the underside of fronds (the leaves of ferns)
What is an indusium?
A covering of the sorus (on the fronds of ferns). Is a sterile area
What does Annulus mean?
Responsible for spreading and projecting spores in ferns. A ring or group of thick wall cells around the sporangia of many ferns that function in spore release
What is the importance of peat moss?
commercially, peat moss is used as fuel, soil conditioner, by florists
What is an Antheridia?
The male gametophyte (haploid). Produces sperm
What is an archegonia?
The female gametophyte (haploid). Contains an egg
Gymnosperm means _____ translated.
Which seed plants still have flagellated swimming
Cycads and ginkophyta
What is the history behind ginkos?
They are extinct in nature. Preserved only because monks in China (??) liked them and build them around monestaries. They are used as medicine (enhances memory. Is an anti-age cerebral)
- Mature ovary with its seeds.
- Either simple (from a single ovary), or
- compound (from many ovaries fusing together)
the fertilized ripened ovule of a flowering plant containing an embryo and capable normally of germination to produce a new plant
Define resin? Where do you find it?
Resin is located in the wood. Resin has antibacterial and antifungal properties to prevent infection in trees.
What is the difference between woody and
- herbacious plants - leaves and stems die at the
- end of the growing season (annual, perrenial, and biennial)
- woody plants- perrenial. stems and branches always growing throughout the year
Which group is called living fossils and why?
Cycadophyta, because they date back 200 million years to the Jurassic period
What is the difference between hard wood and
- Soft wood trees (ex. Conifers). Lack thick walls and xylem cells.
- Hard wood trees (angiosperms)
What is the difference between homosporous and
heterosporous? What does it refer to?
- Homosporous means that all spores are the same. (lycopodium)
- Heterosporous means that there are Male and female spores. Microspores and megaspores (Selaginella and Isoetes), and all flowering plants
Is pollination the same as fertilization?
Pollination is the transfer of pollen grains. Fertilization is the sperm actually reaching the egg. They are not the same
What are the parts of a flower?
- Pistil- female reproduction
- Stigma- receptive part. Receives pollen
- Style- neck
- Ovary- contains seeds. Has ovules (unfertilized egg)
- Stamen- male reproductive part. Contains Anther and filament
- Sepal- green, leaf-like below petal
- Petals- attract pollinator
- Receptacle- stem or point of attachment for all of the flower parts
What does complete mean (in reference to
Have all parts of the flower
What does incomplete mean (in reference to
Missing one or more parts of the flower
What does perfect mean (in reference to
Have both male and female parts
What does imperfect mean (in reference to
- Have only one sex.
- Pisillate- female only
- Staminate- male only
What does monoecious mean?
produces both male and female parts on the same plant. Ex: conifers
What does dioecious mean?
Each plant is either male or female, but not both
What is a drupe?
- Fleshy fruit with hard or stony endocarp
- Cherry, peach, plum, apricots
What is a pepo?
- Fleshy fruit when outer ring is hard, endocarp is not divisible into sections
- Watermelon, cucumber, cantaloupe
What is a hesperidium?
- Pericarp divided into many layers
- Lemon, lime, orange
What is a berry?
- Fleshy fruit which all three layers are succulent, juicy
- Grape, tomato, blueberry
What is a legume?
A dry fruit. (beans, peas)
What does the term thallus refer to?
The gametophyte of the true fern (pterophyta). Contains archegonia and antheridia
What does dehiscent mean? (with regards to
- Weakened area so seeds fall out
- Legume (pod like and splits on both sides) (pea, peanut)
- Capsule (splits by pores or circular openings) (brazil nut)
- Follicle (splits on one side only)
- Schizocarp (splitting fruit)(okra pod)
What does indehiscent mean? (with regards to
- Ovary wall doesn’t split open naturally and must decay. Split on predetermined line
- Caryopsis-grain (ovary wall fused to seed. Cannot
- Achene- (single seeded fruit not fused to
- ovary wall) (sunflower seed)
- Nut-( entire pericarp is hard. Doesn’t permit
- seed to escape. Single seeded. Seed germinates inside and pushes out) (walnut,
What does deciduous mean?
Trees lose their leaves in winter
What is a monocot?
- One cotyledon
- Parallel veins
- Petals and sepals in multiples of 3
- Fibrous root system
- Stems have scattered vascular bundles
- No true woody monocots
What is a dicot?
- Two cotyledons
- Netted veins
- Petals and sepals in multiples of 4 or 5
- Primary root system
- Concentric rings of vascular tissue
- Both herbivorous and woody
What is endosperm?
Stored food for the embryo that will eventually become caryledon
What is the life cycle of a fern?
A diploid zygote matures into a sporophyte that contain sporangium. When the sporangium mature, they release spores. (Not too sure about the next part). The spores mature into either an archegonium (femal) or antheridia (male). The male sperm will fertilize the female archegonium (egg) which will create a diploid zygote again!
When haploid, ferns are in the ________ stage
Gametophyte. Spores produced are gametophyte.
When diploid, ferns are in the
Sporophyte. When sperm fertilizes the egg, it becomes a sporophyte