Chapter 7 Phys Psych

  1. Across-fiber pattern principle
    notion that each receptor responds to a wide range of stimuli and contributes to the perception of every stimulus in its system
  2. Adaptation
    decreased response to a stimulus as a result of recent exposure to it
  3. Amplitude
    intensity of a sound or other stimulus
  4. Capsaicin
    chemical that causes neurons containing substance P to release it suddenly and also directly stimulates pain receptors sensitive to moderate heat
  5. Cochlea
    structure in the inner ear containing auditory receptors
  6. Conductive deafness (middle-ear deafness)
    hearing loss that occurs if the bones of the middle ear fail to transmit sound waves properly to the cochlea
  7. Cross-adaptation
    reduced response to one stimulus because of recent exposure to some other stimulus
  8. Dermatome
    area of skin connected to a particular spinal nerve
  9. Endorphins
    category of chemicals the body produces that stimulate the same receptors as do opiates
  10. Frequency
    number of sound waves per second
  11. Frequency theory
    concept that pitch perception depends on differences in frequency of action potentials by auditory neurons
  12. Gate theory
    assumption that stimulation of certain nonpain axons in the skin or in the brain can inhibit transmission of pain messages in the spinal cord
  13. Hair cell
    type of sensory receptor shaped like a hair; auditory receptors are hair cells
  14. Labeled-line principle
    concept that each receptor responds to a limited range of stimuli and has a direct line to the brain
  15. Loudness
    perception of the intensity of a sound
  16. Nerve deafness (inner-ear deafness)
    hearing loss that results from damage to the cochlea, the hair cells, or the auditory nerve
  17. Nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS)
    area in the medulla that receives input from taste receptors
  18. Olfaction
    sense of smell
  19. Olfactory cells
    neurons responsible for the sense of smell, located on the olfactory epithelium in the rear of the nasal air passages
  20. Opioid mechanisms
    systems responsive to opiate drugs and similar chemicals
  21. Oval window
    membrane of the inner ear, adjacent to the stirrup
  22. Pacinian corpuscle
    receptor that responds to a sudden displacement of the skin or highfrequency vibration on the skin
  23. Papilla (pl.: papillae)
    structure on the surface of the tongue containing taste buds
  24. Periaqueductal gray area
    area of the brainstem that is rich in enkephalin synapses
  25. Pheromone
    chemical released by one animal that affects the behavior of other members of the same species
  26. Pinna
    outer-ear structure of flesh and cartilage that sticks out from each side of the head
  27. Pitch
    experience that corresponds to the frequency of a sound
  28. Place theory
    concept that pitch perception depends on which part of the inner ear has cells with the greatest activity level
  29. Placebo
    drug or other procedure with no pharmacological effects
  30. Primary auditory cortex (area A1)
    area in the temporal lobes in which cells respond best to tones of a particular frequency
  31. Semicircular canal
    canal lined with hair cells and oriented in three planes, sensitive to the direction of tilt of the head
  32. Somatosensory system
    sensory network that monitors the surface of the body and its movements
  33. Substance P
    neurotransmitter released by nerves that are sensitive to pain
  34. Supertasters
    people with heightened sensitivity to taste
  35. Synesthesia
    experience of one sense in response to stimulation of another sense
  36. Taste buds
    structures on the tongue that contain taste receptors
  37. Tinnitus
    frequent or constant ringing in the ears
  38. Tympanic membrane
  39. Volley principle
    tenet that a sound wave of a moderately high pitch may produce a volley of impulses by various fi bers even if no individual fiber can produce impulses in synchrony with the sound waves
  40. Vomeronasal organ (VNO)
    set of receptors located near, but separate from, the olfactory receptors
Card Set
Chapter 7 Phys Psych
Chapter 7 Vocabulary rules