Earth Science

  1. renewable
    can be replenished over short periods of time
  2. nonrenewable
    take millions of years to form and accumulate
  3. fossil fuel
    any hydrocarbon that may be used as a source of energy
  4. coal
    forms when heat and pressure transform plant and material over million of years.
  5. peat
    partially decayed plant material
  6. When does peat become lignite?
    in sedimentary rock that is often called coal
  7. What transforms lignite into bitiminas?
    continued heat and pressure
  8. What happens when coal develops from peat to bitiminas?
    It becomes harder and releases more heat when it is burned.
  9. What do power plants use to generate electricity?
  10. oil and natural gas
    form fromthe remains of plants and animals that were buried in bodies of water long ago
  11. How does petroleum develop?
    large amounts of plant and animals remains become buried in ocean floor sediments which protect the remains form oxidation.
  12. Describe the process that turns the remains of plants and animals into natural gas and oil?
    Over many years the sediments build up. Mineral reactions transform the remains into liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons
  13. Tar Sand and oil shale
    some energy experts believe that fuels derived from tar sands and oil shale could become substitues for the dwindling petroleum supplies.
  14. Tar Sands
    • mixtures of clay and sand combined with water and varing amounts of black thick tar called bitumen
    • contains oil that is similar to the oil that is pumped at with anticlines but in tar sand the oilis more resisitent to flow and cannot be pumped easily.
  15. Mining of oil in tar sands
    • mined at surface
    • mined material is heated wiht pressurized stream until bitimen softens and rises
  16. Oil shale
    • a rock that contains a waxy mixture of hydrocarbons called kerogen
    • can be mined and heated to vaporize the kerogen
    • kerogen vapors are processed to remove the impurities and then refined
    • part of sedimentary layers that accumulated over millions of years at the bottom of 2 extremely large shallow lakes.
  17. mineral resources
    deposits of useful minerals that can be extracted
  18. reserves
    deposits from which minerals can be extracted profitably
  19. ore
    a useful metallic mneral that can be mined at a profit
  20. ore
    • the natural concentration of many minerals is rather small. If extracting a mineral costs more than a value of a mineral then it is worthless
    • the occurrence of valuable mineral resources are closely related to the Earth's rock cycle.
  21. Hydrothermal Solutions
    • generate some of the best known and most important ore deposits
    • usually involve minerals that are not only heavy but also durable and chemically resistant
  22. What are common sites of accumulation?
    • bends in streams
    • cracks in stream bed
    • best known--gold
  23. nonmetallic mineral resources
    extracted and processed either for the nonmetallic element or for their chemical and physical properties
  24. How much of our energy resources are supplied by non-renewable resources?
  25. solar energy
    the direct use of the sun's rays to supply heat or electricity
  26. nuclear energy
    • fuel for nuclear plants comes from radioactive materials that release energy through nuclear fission
    • nuclear fission results in controlled nuclear chain reactions that release great amounts of energy
  27. What are the disadvantages of nuclear energy?
    • costly, hazards associated with the disposal of nuclear wastes
    • accidents are possible that allow radiactive materials to escape
Card Set
Earth Science
Taylor's notes