1. osmotic diuretics
  2. carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
  3. loop diuretics
  4. thiazide diuretics
  5. potassium sparing diuretics
    • amiloride
    • spironolactone
  6. Use, admin, toxicity of osmotic diuretics
    • used for: oligurai acute renal failures, reduction of intraocular pressure, cerebral edema
    • can give IV, observe for crystals in vial
    • toxicity: electrolyte imblaland (serum dilution of K and Na), fluid overload, dehydration
    • pt related variables: HF, renal function resistant to diuretic
  7. acetazolamide
    • carbonic anhydrase inhibitor
    • blocks reabsorption of Na and bicarbonate
    • results in mild metabolic acidosis
    • used for diuresis, glaucoma, seizures (acidosis increases threshold), altitude sickness, met alkylosis
    • toxicity: GI distress, anorexia, met acidosis
    • pt related variable: sulfonamide sensitivity
  8. furosemide
    • loop diuretic
    • blocks reabsorption of NaCl
    • increases loss of Na, K, Mg, Cl and water, as well as Ca
    • used for HTN, edema, hypercalcemia, hyponatremia (with NaCl infusion)
    • toxicity: hypokalemia, hyperuricemia, hyperglycemia (hypoK antagonizes insulin effect), ototoxicity, hypovolemia, hypomagnesemia
    • pt related variables: gout, DM, allergy to sulfa/diuretics, liver dz
    • interacts with DIGOXIN
  9. hydrochlorothiazide
    • thiazide diuretic
    • blocks Na reabsorption
    • increases loss of Na, K, Mg, Cl and water (not Ca)
    • may not be effective in pts with renal probs (except metolazone and indapamide)
    • used for HTN, edema, hyPOcalcemia
    • toxicity: hypoK, hypouricemia, hypoglycemia, dehydration, hypoNa, hypoMg, hyperCa, increased LDL and total cholesterol, constipation
    • pt related variables: gout, DM, allergy to diuretics, renal probs
    • interacts with DIGOXIN, LITHIUM (increases levels)
  10. Spironolactone
    • k-sparing diuretic (and Mg sparing diuretic)
    • antagonizes aldosterone
    • used to block the k-wasting of other diuretics, improve CHF
    • toxicity: hyperkalemia, gynecomastia
    • pt related variables: interactions with potassium supplement or ACEI to increase serum K, renal failure
Card Set
Pharm exam 2