Animal Physiology Test 2

  1. Excitable
    Respond to stimuli
  2. What % is muscle mass?
  3. Contractility
    Respond to stimuli
  4. Extensibility
    Extends but may not go back to original form
  5. Elastic
    Stretches like a rubber band. Goes back to original shape.
  6. Muscles produce heat by
  7. Basic functions
    Motion, body posture, heat production
  8. Skeletal muscles
    Stiated, voluntary-moves skeleton
  9. Smooth muscle
    Walls of organs and blood vessels, unstriated and involuntary-autonomic nervous system
  10. Cardiac muscle
    Heart muscle, unstriated, involuntary
  11. Connective tissue layers of muscle
    • 1. Epimysium-around whole muscle
    • 2. Perimysium-Sperates fascicles (Sections within muscle)
    • 3. Endomysium-Around each muscle fiber
  12. Order of muscle anatomy
    Skeletal muscle>Epimysium>Fascicles>Perimysium>Muscle fiber>Endomysium>Muscle fiber>Myofibrils>filaments
  13. Microscopic structure
    Muscle>Muscle Fibers>Myofibers>Myofibrils>Myofilaments>Actin and Myosin
  14. Sarcolema
    Cell membrane of muscle cell
  15. Sarcoplasm
    Cytoplasm of muscle cell
  16. Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (SR)
    ER of muscle cell
  17. Sarcomere
    Distance between contractile segemnts (Z-lines)
  18. Muscle anatomy picture
    Image Upload 2
  19. Myosin
    Thick filaments-includes H-and & A-band (both actin & mysosin)
  20. Long tail and globular heads..
    Myosin with ATP
  21. I-Band
    Main part of thin filaments-Actin
  22. G-actin
    Globular subunits of actin
  23. F-actin
    Chains of G-actin woven together in a braided hair-like structure
  24. Tropomyosin
    Long single strand lying in the grooves of F-actin
  25. Tropomyosin picture
    Image Upload 4
  26. Muscles can shorten by what %?
  27. Carry nerve impulse to muscle fiber
    Motor neurons
  28. Mortor neuron and all of its muscle fibers
    Motor unit
  29. Neuromuscular junction
    Junction between neuron and muscle fibers
  30. Motor end plate
    Part of sarcolemma associated with axon terminal
  31. Impulse and AP pathway
    Impulse>axon terminal depolarizes>exocytosis of Ach>To receptor cell motor end plate>inc. Na permiability>AP moves down sarcolemma
  32. L-tubules are where?
    Sarcoplasmic reticulum
  33. Excitation and relaxation of muscles
    Signal down T-tubules>Sarcoplasm>Ca out>Troponin>excite/Relax>Ca pump in>sarcoplasm>L-tubules
  34. ATP in mysosin is used when?
    Causes myosin head to detach and swivel to next troponin
  35. Actin does what in respects to mysosin
    Actin slides over myosin heads. Actin moves, myosin filaments do not
  36. Actin and myosin movement picture
    Image Upload 6
  37. When contracted, Z-lines and H-band does what?
    • Z-line gets pulled together
    • H-band disappears
  38. Upon muscle relaxation, what happens?
    • No nerve impulse>No depolorization>No release of Ca
    • Ca pump returns Ca to L-tubules
    • Requires ATP
  39. To remove P from ATP what is needed? ADP + Pi
  40. Oxidative phosphorylation happens where?
    Mitochondria, aerobic
  41. Isotonic
    Tension>load=muscle contraction
  42. Isometric
    Load>tension=No shortening-antagonistic
  43. Twitch is
    Single stimulus>lag period>contracts>relaxes
  44. More motor units used...Stronger contraction
    Spatial summation
  45. Restimulate muscle before it relaxes
    Temporal summation=stronger contraction
  46. No relation between contractions
  47. Missing distrophen protein
    Dushane disease
  48. Fibers preplaced by fatty or connective tissues
    Muscular distrophy
  49. Muscular autrophy-neuromuscular junction-AB to Ach binding site
    Myasthenia Gravis
  50. Location-Blood vessels, heart, organs, etc
    smooth muscle
  51. Syncitium
    One impulse across entire muscle-better faster contractions
  52. Tone-contracts slower and sustains contractions
    Smooth muscle
  53. Can shorten more and stretches more
    smooth muscle
  54. Smooth muscle has poorly developed
    Sarcoplasmic reticulum
  55. Cardiac muscle is what?
    Involunarty, striated
  56. Intercalated discs
    Between cardiac muscles for contraction continuity
  57. Desmosomes
    Allows for simultanious contractions-gap junction
  58. Central nervous system consists of (CNS)?
    Brain and spinal cord
  59. PNS periferral nervous system consists of two types of nerves. What are they and their direction?
    • Afferent-to brain
    • Efferent-From brain
  60. Efferent neurons are what type?
    Motor neurons
  61. Afferent Neurons are what type?
    Sensory neurons
  62. Anatomy of brain has 4 main parts
    • 1. Brain stem
    • 2.Diencephalon
    • 3. Cerebrum
    • 4. Cerebellum
  63. Brain stem has 3 parts.
    • 1. Medulla oblongata
    • 2. Pons Varolii
    • 3. Midbrain
  64. Medulla Oblongata does what?
    • Highway for motor and sensory impulse
    • -Cardiac center
    • -Respiratory center
    • -vasomotor center
    • -swallowing, sneezing, coughing center
  65. Pons Varolli is located where?
    Superior to Medulla
  66. Pons Varolii does what?
    • Connects brain stem to brain-white matter
    • -Part of respiratory center
    • -Has cranial nerves
  67. Cranial nerve #5
  68. Cranial nerve #6
    Eyeball motion
  69. Cranial nerve #7
    Facial expressions
  70. Cranial nerve #8
  71. Total amount of cranial nerves?
  72. What is located in the midbrain?
    Substantia Nigra
  73. Midbrain is located where?
    Between the pons and diencephalon
  74. The midbrain does what?
    Continuation of sensory and motor neurons-upper and lower CNS
  75. Diencephalon has two parts
    • 1. Thalmus
    • 2. Hypothalmus
  76. Thalmus characteristics
    • 2 masses of gray matter. 20 nuclei (nerves)
    • Replay station for afferent impulses
    • Pain, temp., pressure recognition
  77. Hypothalmus does what?
    • Produces hormones to instruct pituitary
    • -Temp, feeding/satiety center, thirst, Limpic center (fear and rage, sex drive)
    • -Endocrine control, regulates smooth muscle contractions
  78. Cerebrum is the..
    Largest part of brain
  79. Gary matter and white matter is where in the Cerebellum?
    • Cerebral cortex-Gray
    • Inner cerebellum-White matter
  80. Rolls of cortex
  81. Fissures of cortex
  82. Occipital lobe
    Back of brain-vision
  83. Temporal lobe
    Lower brain-hearing & olfactory
  84. Parietal lobe
    Mid brain-Taste, touch, joint receptors
  85. Frontal lobe
    Front of brain-Dicission making, speech, voluntary motor, thought
  86. Cerebral cortex is divided into
    Motor and sensory areas
  87. Primary sensory
    Parietal lobe
  88. Primary motor
    Frontal lobe
  89. Brocas area
    Motor speech
  90. Precentral gyrus
    Motor cortex
  91. Wernicke's Area
    Hearing, vision
  92. Angular gyrus
    • Integrate hearing and vision
    • Troubles here-Problem reading and not writing or trouble writing but not reading
  93. Vegus Nerve
    #10-Motor goes to organs. ONLY slows heart
  94. White matter Spinal cord
  95. Spinal cord gray matter
  96. Spinal cord nerve
    Collection of nerve fibers (axons) OUTSIDE CNS
  97. Spinal cord ganglion
    Collection of cell bodies (somas) OUTSIDE CNS
  98. Ascending tracts
    Up spinal cord
  99. Desecending tracts
    Down spinal cord
  100. Spinal cord nuclei
    Same as ganglion but INSIDE CNS
  101. Acending tracts are
    White matter to brain
  102. Descending tracts are
    Gray matter from brain
  103. Meninges layers, 3 of them
    • 1. Pia mater-Innermost
    • 2. Arachnoid-Middle
    • 3. Dura mater-Outermost, encloses blood sinus
  104. Ventricles of brain
    4 interconnected cavities
  105. Polymyelitis
    Polio-Virus distroys motor nerve cell bodies
  106. Cerbral palsy
    Damage to cerebral cortex and cerebellum
  107. Parkinsons disease
    Tremors, lack dopamine which normal inactivates Ach in brain. Depronil to substitute dopamine. Affect substantia nigra
  108. MS
    Multiple sclerosis-Destruction of myelin sheaths. AB against myelin-autrophy
  109. Tay-sachs
    Build up of sphingolipids-Brain nerve cell degeneration-Lack EZ to break down sphingolipids
  110. Brain waves
    • Alpha-Resting
    • Beta-Active, fastest
    • Theta-Emotional distress (normal for newborns)
    • Delta-Slowest, awake infant, sleeping adult
  111. Synpathetic NS
    • Thoracic and lumbar
    • LONG postganglionic
    • SHORT preganglionic
    • Innervates entire body
  112. Parasympathetic NS
    • Brain stem and sacral region
    • SHORT postgangionic
    • LONG preganglionic
    • Innervates head and lower abdomen
    • #10 vagus nerve
  113. Cholinergic release
  114. Andrenergic release
  115. All preganglionic nerves release what?
  116. Parasympathetic postganglionic nerves release what?
  117. Sympathetic postganglionic nerves release what?
    • Adrenergic-norephinephrine/epinephrine
    • Except sweat glands-Ach
  118. Fast Pain
    Initial pain. Type A nerves
  119. Slow pain
    More diffused-heart attack. Type C nerves
  120. Lateral pathway
    Pain and temp
  121. Anterior pathway
    Crude touch, pressure
  122. Posterior pathway
    Fine touch, vibration, weight sesitivity
  123. 2 major voluntary motor pathways
    • Pyramidal pathways-percise muscle movement
    • Extrapyramidal pathways-Auditory, visual, head movements, equilibrium
  124. Engram
    Neural tacing of an experience
  125. Synaptic facilitation
    Repeating passages across synapse. Easier for next signal to come through
  126. Reticular activating system (RAS)
    Brain stem area responsible for arousal
  127. Pons and medulla produce what?
    Sleep. release seritonin-Inhibit RAS
Card Set
Animal Physiology Test 2
Muscles and nervous system