# Kin300 Stats

 ________ is a mathematical science pertaining to the collection, analysis, interpretation or explanation, and presentation of data. Used for making informed decisions. Statistics All members of a specified group is a ______ Population A subset of a population is a ... sample ___________ __________ are used to describe the basic characteristics of the data in a study. Expressed in numerical and/or graphical form. They form the basis of virtually every quantitative analysis of data. Descriptive statistics _______ ________ are used to draw conclusions about a population based on information contained in a sample. Information is obtained from a sample and generalized o a population. Inferential statistics A value, or quantity, that represents a characteristic of a population such as population mean or standard deviation is a... parameter A value, or quantity, that represents a characteristic of a sample such as the sample mean or standard deviation is a... statistic Something that can take on more than one value is a ... variable the various values that a variable may assume (i.e. red, white, blue // 1, 2, 3 ) "levels" of a variable A variable whose levels are described numerically (i.e., termperature, %body fat, and time) quantitative variable A variable whose leels are described with words or phrases i.e. gender or size qualitative variable A quantitative variable that can be reduced to an infinite number of possible values, depending on the accuracy of the measuring instrument continuous variable A variable, either qualitative or quantitative, with a finite number of values that cannot be subdivided meaningfully. i.e., heart rate, IQ, color Discrete variable Variables are cateforical, qualitative, and discrete in nature. i.e. brand of shoes, Social Security numbers, gender Nominal Level of measurement Variables are categorical and discrete in nature. Ranked in order i.e. finish position in race and t-shirt size ordinal level of measurement Variables at this level may be quantitative or qualitative, discrete or continuous. Posses ordinal characteristics with added of equal intervals between levels. shoe size, temperature, IQ Interval Level of Measurement __________variables possess all of the characteristics of interval level variables with the added characteristic of a measurement baseline. Baseline as a zero point on the measurement scale.. height, weight, distance ratio level of measurement A type of research that may have limited direct application but in which the researcher has careful control of the conditions Basic Research A type of research that has direct value to practitioners but in which the researcher has limited control over the research setting;; longer study Applied Research An unscientific method of problem solving in which people cling to certain beliefs regardless of the lack of supporting evidence Tenacity An unscientific method of problem solving using intuitive knowledge or common sense intuition An unscientific method of problem solving in which reference to an authority figure is used as a source of knowledge authority an unscientific method ofproblem solving in which we derive knowledge through reasoning rationalistic method the outcome measure; the cariable that is measured in a research study.It is free to vary, and is affected by, or "dependent" on , the actions of others Dependent variable A variable that you identify as having a potential influence on your outcome measure. this might be a variable that you control independent variable Variable that is held constant, or controled, at one level thoughout an experiment. Control Variable undesirable variables that influence the relationship between the variables that an experimenter is examining because they add error to an experiment extraneous variables ________ reflects the caracteristics of interest from the target population representative sample A ______ _______ is drawn in such a way that all members of the population have an equal chance of being selected random sample A ____ _____ is drawn in such a way that some members of the populatin are more likely to be chosen than others biased sample A __________ __________ is drawn from an "intact class" or by asking people to volunter. This is a biased sample. convenience sample A sample chosen from a population that has been subdivided based upon predetermined characteristics such as gender, race, socio-economic status. used for nationwide polls Stratified sample A sample obtained using a pre-determined system (not random); for example, choosing every 10th subject from the population. systematic sample Data examined from selected cases and controls to determine differences, if any, in the xposure to a suspected factor. Subjects are not "treated," cariables are not controlled, and cause & effect may not be inferrred. Incidences of premature births were counted among mothers who smoked (case group) and mothers who didn't smoke (control group) Retrospective Study; case-control study; cross-sectional study A group of healthy subjects is enrolled and followed over time to determine the requency with which a specific outcome develops. The sample may be grouped according to the presence or absence of a stimulus variable such as smoking history. i.e. a group of smokers and a group of non-smokers were observed across time with the intent of comparing the incidence of lung disease prospective study; cohort study; longitudinal study A carefully designed study that seeks to determine, under controlled conditions, the effectiveness of a treatment method Experiment (clinical trial) The process whereby subjects are randomly assigned to treatment and control groups Random Assignment The degree to which the experimental results can be generalized to the target population. The highest degree of ____ ____ exists when all responses from subjects in the sample can be seen in the population. - An average loss of 10lbs in a sample would be mirrored by an average of 10lbs lost in the population External validity The degree to which changing the level of independent variable causes a change in the dependent variable. In an experiment, the highest degree exists when all fluctuations in the dependent variable can be attributed to the effect of the independent variable. Internal validity ____ _____ occurs when subjects in a control group discover they are in the control group and they react by "trying harder" Avis effect The measurable, observable, or felt improvement in health or behavior not attributable to a medicaiton or treatment that has been administered Placebo effect .... occurs when subjects in a treatment group imporve their performance because they know they are being treated or tested Hawthorne effect A study in which the subject does not know whether he or she is in the treatment or control group Single-blind study ... occurs when a researcher inaverently influences subjects' performances, which consequently affects the outcome of a study. Rosenthal effect A study in which neither the subject nor the experimenter knows to which group the subject has been assigned Double-Blind study the average of a set of scores mean the middle point in a set of scores median the most frequently occurring score in a set of scores mode A measure of variability around the mean. has same units of measurement as mean standard deviation A distribution made up of all possible mean values from samples of a given size. Sampling distribution The standard deviation of a sampling distribution. A measure of error variability used as the denominator in t statitics Standard Error A measure of variability representing the distance from the highest score to the lowest score. Range a characteristic of asymmetrical distribution. skewness negatively skewed when a higher frequency of scores are found above the mean than below it positively skewed when a higher frequency of scoresare found below the mean than above it sx is sample standard deviance x with the line over it is mean N = data set omega? x is...? standard deviation omega2x is population variance s2x is sample variance SS = populations variance x N ... --- o2x X n how do you calculate z-score? (x - mean)/ Sx how do you calculate t-score? 10*z-score+50 how do you calculate %tile? (x below x / ttl#) 100 z scores will always have a mean and population variances of what? 0.00 and 1 Authorforevermorekae ID41841 Card SetKin300 Stats DescriptionStats definition and Equations Updated2010-10-13T05:26:11Z Show Answers