What does abiotic environment mean?
Its physical surroundings, has to do with atmosphere, water and soil.
What is atmosphere as an environment?
- wind seed and direction
- light intensity and quality
- air temperature
What is water as an environment?
- dissolved nutrients
- pH and salinity
- Dissolved oxygen
What is soil as an environment?
- Nutrient availability
- Soil moisture and pH
What is biotic factors?
- Other organisms in which it reacts with eg.
Whats a water loving plant called?
Whats a dry loving plant called?
Whats a salt loving plant called?
What an auxin?
- promotes growth in stem length
- promotes cell enlargement and differentitaion in cambium
- responsible for apical dominance
- delays onset of senescence and leaf fall.
What a gibberellin?
- delay onset of senescence and leaf fall
- promotes elongation in the region just below the shoot tip
- promotes secondary growth
- breaks dormancy in seeds and buds
Whats a cytokinins?
- essential for growth
- promotes cell division
- induces fruit ripening
- promotes leaf fall
Whats absicis acid?
- growth inhibitor
- made in response to water stress
- promotes seed dormancy
What is photototropism?
going towards the light
growth in response to gravity
What colour light does shoots respond to?
What is orange-red light resonded to?
- not shoots
Maintaining a relatively stable internal environment in the face of changeing conditions.
What is negative feedback systems?
a response is produced to reduce an original stimuli, to maintain homeostasis.
What are endocrine glands?
- Typically release hormones directly into the circulatory system, which carries the thoughout the body.
- examples: thyroid glands, gonads and the pituitary gland.
What are exocrine glands?
- Typically release their secretion via a duct directly to their site of action in the gut or to the exterior of the body.
- examples: salivary glands, digestive glands and sweat glands
Whats the pituitary gland?
A glad at the base of the brain which is the central role in overall endocrine regulation. Secrets hormones invoved in the regulation of growth, lactation, reproductive state, skin pigmentation, fat tissue, kidney fuction and the activity of the thyroid and adrenal glands.
The basic unit of a nervous system; a cell specialised to receive conduct and transmit information.
Central nervous system (CNS)?
Brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system?
outside the CNS
diverse group of compounds that act as intercellular messengers and regulate cell function. produced by cells. they are slower then nevers.
Where hormone signals are sent
- Receives information from all parts of the body. Relases hormones which control the secretions of some hormones from the pituitary.
- Receives information relating to the well-being of the body and fuctions in maintaining homeostasis.
An unconcious and automatic response to prevent from injury. Simpilist involves just sensory (->) neuron and a motor (<-) neuron more complex involved a interneuron.
creates opportunity for coordination and integration increases. Many cases send message to oppisite side so it doesnt copy.
associated with motor activity, sensory imput, speech, sight and hearing
invoved in the coordination of muscular activity including posture, balance and movement.
Associated with the conrol of the heart, blood vessels and lung ventilation.
invoved in vision
invoved in taste, smell, communication
involved in hearing, balance, pressure, touch.
Na in K out
- natural cycle of about 24 hour period observed in animals or plants
- examples: sleep, opening and closing petals)
temperature, day length
- passage of fluids in close proximity and in opposite directions; allows more efficent of exchange between the fluids
- Examples: heat
- the exchange of heat accross two tubes
- fish gills it is the exchange of oxygen
temperature behavioural regulation
hibernation, huddling, basking in the sun (positioning the body), moving underground, night activity restriction,clothing worn, shivering ect.
- Advangtages: maintain constaint temperature
- Disadvantages: cost energy, body core temperature change (higher) can be lethal
body parts eg, arm, leg
what they do
enters at state of torpor (when an animal is sluggish and inactive) puncuated by brief periods of activity
is generally any behaviour that is not learned
- depends on environment
- it is the modification of a behavioural response to a particular stimulus on the basis of previous experiances
tendency for an animal to follow or associate with a moving object that it sees during a sensitive period early in life.
the gradual fading of behavioural response to a stimulus that proves to be safe or irrelevant
the association of a new signal (eg ring of a bell) with the innate signal (eg tating food) that triggers a particular behavioural response (eg salivation)
trial and error learning
the type of learing where an animal carries out a particular behaviour and remembering the attempt and its outcome, modifies its sunsequent behaviour in order to improve the chances of sucess.
is learning by observing other animals and is most likely to be gained from parents and peers
is the most complex, when an animal recalls and considers past general experience and then responds in a new situaltion
is trypically found in aquatic animals, such as some invertebrates, fish and frogs. large number of eggs and sperm are released into the same region of water, and sperm swim intill they encounter an egg.
involves all land animals and aquatic mammals. it involves copulation, where the sperm are deposited inside the reptoductive tract of the female.
- development of an animal that involves an intermidiate free-living form larval form before the adult form is reached.
- small amounts of yolk
- pattern of animal development in which an individual is hatched or born in an essentially adult form. Involes parental care. less eggs are produced. more energy is spent in devopment of the baby.
- more yolk
- a cell division that produces four daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell.
- the products of meisois is gamets.
Division of the nucleus which leads to indentical copies of each chromosome being passed from mother cell to two daughter cells
- One parent giving rise to a new individual from its body body cells; offspring are genetically identical to their parent.
- Advantages: produce many, no energy spent finding a partner
- Disadvanges: all the same, no alterations though generations
alternation of generations
the alternation of haploid and diploild stages in the life cycles of eukarotes
form of asexual reproduction of unicelluar organisms where the parent cell divides into ywo approximately equal parts