bio unit 2 exam

  1. What does abiotic environment mean?
    Its physical surroundings, has to do with atmosphere, water and soil.
  2. What is atmosphere as an environment?
    • wind seed and direction
    • humidity
    • light intensity and quality
    • precipitation
    • air temperature
  3. What is water as an environment?
    • dissolved nutrients
    • pH and salinity
    • Dissolved oxygen
    • Temperature
  4. What is soil as an environment?
    • Nutrient availability
    • Soil moisture and pH
    • Composition
    • Temperature
  5. What is biotic factors?
    • Other organisms in which it reacts with eg.
    • producers
    • consumers
    • detritivores
    • decomposers
  6. Whats a water loving plant called?
  7. Whats a dry loving plant called?
  8. Whats a salt loving plant called?
  9. What an auxin?
    • promotes growth in stem length
    • promotes cell enlargement and differentitaion in cambium
    • responsible for apical dominance
    • delays onset of senescence and leaf fall.
  10. What a gibberellin?
    • delay onset of senescence and leaf fall
    • promotes elongation in the region just below the shoot tip
    • promotes secondary growth
    • breaks dormancy in seeds and buds
  11. Whats a cytokinins?
    • essential for growth
    • promotes cell division
  12. Whats ethene?
    • induces fruit ripening
    • promotes leaf fall
  13. Whats absicis acid?
    • growth inhibitor
    • made in response to water stress
    • promotes seed dormancy
  14. What is photototropism?
    going towards the light
  15. Whats geotropism?
    growth in response to gravity
  16. What colour light does shoots respond to?
  17. What is orange-red light resonded to?
    • seeds
    • leafs
    • steams
    • not shoots
  18. Whats homeostasis?
    Maintaining a relatively stable internal environment in the face of changeing conditions.
  19. What is negative feedback systems?
    a response is produced to reduce an original stimuli, to maintain homeostasis.
  20. What are endocrine glands?
    • Typically release hormones directly into the circulatory system, which carries the thoughout the body.
    • examples: thyroid glands, gonads and the pituitary gland.
  21. What are exocrine glands?
    • Typically release their secretion via a duct directly to their site of action in the gut or to the exterior of the body.
    • examples: salivary glands, digestive glands and sweat glands
  22. Whats the pituitary gland?
    A glad at the base of the brain which is the central role in overall endocrine regulation. Secrets hormones invoved in the regulation of growth, lactation, reproductive state, skin pigmentation, fat tissue, kidney fuction and the activity of the thyroid and adrenal glands.
  23. Neuron?
    The basic unit of a nervous system; a cell specialised to receive conduct and transmit information.
  24. Central nervous system (CNS)?
    Brain and spinal cord
  25. Peripheral nervous system?
    outside the CNS
  26. Hormone?
    diverse group of compounds that act as intercellular messengers and regulate cell function. produced by cells. they are slower then nevers.
  27. Target cells
    Where hormone signals are sent
  28. Hypothalamus?
    • Receives information from all parts of the body. Relases hormones which control the secretions of some hormones from the pituitary.
    • Receives information relating to the well-being of the body and fuctions in maintaining homeostasis.
  29. Reflex response?
    An unconcious and automatic response to prevent from injury. Simpilist involves just sensory (->) neuron and a motor (<-) neuron more complex involved a interneuron.
  30. Interneurons?
    creates opportunity for coordination and integration increases. Many cases send message to oppisite side so it doesnt copy.
  31. Cerebral cortex?
    associated with motor activity, sensory imput, speech, sight and hearing
  32. Cerebellum?
    invoved in the coordination of muscular activity including posture, balance and movement.
  33. Brainstem?
    Associated with the conrol of the heart, blood vessels and lung ventilation.
  34. Photoreceptors?
    invoved in vision
  35. Chemoreceptors?
    invoved in taste, smell, communication
  36. Mechanoreceptors?
    involved in hearing, balance, pressure, touch.
  37. Excited nerons
    Na in K out
  38. circadian rhythm
    • natural cycle of about 24 hour period observed in animals or plants
    • examples: sleep, opening and closing petals)
  39. circannual rhythum
    yearly rhythm
  40. environmental cues
    temperature, day length
  41. counter-current flow
    • passage of fluids in close proximity and in opposite directions; allows more efficent of exchange between the fluids
    • Examples: heat
    • the exchange of heat accross two tubes
    • fish gills it is the exchange of oxygen
  42. temperature behavioural regulation
    hibernation, huddling, basking in the sun (positioning the body), moving underground, night activity restriction,clothing worn, shivering ect.
  43. endotherms (A&D)
    • Advangtages: maintain constaint temperature
    • Disadvantages: cost energy, body core temperature change (higher) can be lethal
  44. Stuructual adaptations
    body parts eg, arm, leg
  45. physiological adaptations
    internal adaptations
  46. behavioural adaptations
    what they do
  47. Echidna
    enters at state of torpor (when an animal is sluggish and inactive) puncuated by brief periods of activity
  48. innate behaviours
    is generally any behaviour that is not learned
  49. learnt behaviours
    • depends on environment
    • it is the modification of a behavioural response to a particular stimulus on the basis of previous experiances
  50. Imprinting
    tendency for an animal to follow or associate with a moving object that it sees during a sensitive period early in life.
  51. habitution
    the gradual fading of behavioural response to a stimulus that proves to be safe or irrelevant
  52. associative learning
    the association of a new signal (eg ring of a bell) with the innate signal (eg tating food) that triggers a particular behavioural response (eg salivation)
  53. trial and error learning
    the type of learing where an animal carries out a particular behaviour and remembering the attempt and its outcome, modifies its sunsequent behaviour in order to improve the chances of sucess.
  54. observational learning
    is learning by observing other animals and is most likely to be gained from parents and peers
  55. Insight learning
    is the most complex, when an animal recalls and considers past general experience and then responds in a new situaltion
  56. external fertilisation
    is trypically found in aquatic animals, such as some invertebrates, fish and frogs. large number of eggs and sperm are released into the same region of water, and sperm swim intill they encounter an egg.
  57. Internal fertilisation
    involves all land animals and aquatic mammals. it involves copulation, where the sperm are deposited inside the reptoductive tract of the female.
  58. Indirect development
    • development of an animal that involves an intermidiate free-living form larval form before the adult form is reached.
    • small amounts of yolk
  59. direct development
    • pattern of animal development in which an individual is hatched or born in an essentially adult form. Involes parental care. less eggs are produced. more energy is spent in devopment of the baby.
    • more yolk
  60. meiosis
    • a cell division that produces four daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell.
    • the products of meisois is gamets.
  61. Mitosis
    Division of the nucleus which leads to indentical copies of each chromosome being passed from mother cell to two daughter cells
  62. asexual reproduction
    • One parent giving rise to a new individual from its body body cells; offspring are genetically identical to their parent.
    • Advantages: produce many, no energy spent finding a partner
    • Disadvanges: all the same, no alterations though generations
  63. alternation of generations
    the alternation of haploid and diploild stages in the life cycles of eukarotes
  64. binary fission
    form of asexual reproduction of unicelluar organisms where the parent cell divides into ywo approximately equal parts
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bio unit 2 exam
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