1. How/why do humans vary biologically?
    physical features and geographic location
  2. Problems with phenotypic/typological approach?
    most variations occured across human populations regardless of racial makeup; too many different types to classify them
  3. Forensic anthropologists perpetuate myth of biological race?
    They classify biological profiles by sex, stature, age and race. Observable differences between races, but not valid reason.
  4. What roles does press play in shaping understanding of concepts?
    They play a huge role in perception of races on news.
  5. Do racial inequalities in health provide evidence for genetic differences between racially defined groups?
    Genetic factors affect health inequalities, and causes genetic differences between races.
  6. What other factors explain current inequalities in health between racially defined groups?
    socioeconomic stress, health behavior, psychological stress, social structure and cultural context
  7. What is the evidence regarding biological races in human?
    geographic regions causes difference between races, traits are inherited INDEPENDENTLY, and ancestry is related more than race.
  8. Within population vs between population difference?
    There's 90% more difference within regions, and 10% difference between regions. Greater diversity within so called racial groups. Similar biological feastures DOES NOT mean certain people share common ancestry.
  9. Adaptability
    Ability to respond to changes in environment
  10. 5 levels of adaptability
    Acclimation (climate), Acclimatization (climate), Cultural/Behavior Adaptation (Vitamin, living conditions), Genetic Adaptation (sickle-cell anemia, lactose intolerant, skin color), and Developmental Adaptation (physiological/structural changes, barrel chest, Tibetans -> higher reproduction, Andeans -> lower production)
  11. Primate?
    Distinguished by sets of traits, 4 categories: hands and feet, teeth and diet, senses and brain, and maturation
  12. Different kinds of primates?
    Split into two types: Strepsirhini (primitive, prosimians) and Haplorhinis (higher primates, anthropoids)
  13. Strepsirhines?
    most "primitive", smaller brains relative to body size, wet nose, can stick fingers through the back. Examples: lemurs, bushbabies, chafaka, aye-aye
  14. Haplorhines?
    higher primates, post-orbital plate (cannot stick finger through back). Examples: monkeys, apes, tarsiers, humans.

    Split into two subgroups: Monkeys (old & new), and Hominoids (apes & humans)
  15. What are the two types of monkeys?
    • New World Monkeys - found in central and south america, nose project outward to side. examples: spider monkeys, capuchins.
    • Old World Monkeys - Africa and Asia, downward facing nostrils, arboreal and terrestrial. examples: toques, macaques, baboons.
  16. Hominoids?
    Apes and humans, differ in body size, no tails (mostly), and shoulderjoints (shoulderblades are on back, whereas monkeys are on side)
  17. Smaller Apes?
    are found in southeast asia, have braciation form (monkey bar motion), include: siamangs, gibbons.
  18. Great Apes?
    Include Orangutans (found in Indonesia and Borneo), Gorillas (central africa), Chimps (central and west africa), Bonobos (areas south of Zaire River)
  19. How many species of primates are there? Where are living primates found? What habitats do they live in?
    300-400 species, found in South America, Asia, and Africa. Habitats include tropicals, savanna grasslands, mountains, and temperate environments (snow monkeys).
  20. What do anthropologists study the nonhuman primates?
    They are our closest relatives, and they are similar to us. Share a common ancestor.
  21. Where do we study primates?
    Indonesia and China
  22. General behavior patterns in NHP?
    5 types: Sociality, Dominance, Competition and Aggression, Affiliation and Cooperation, and Cultural Behavior
  23. Do nonhuman primates have culture?
    snowmonkeys exhibit use of culture ("emo", snow monkey who washed sweet potato with saltwater)
  24. Melanin
    pigment that controls skin tone/color
  25. Folate
    created from folic acid, contains vitamin B, essential to cell growth and reproduction. excessive UV radiation destroy folate, causing disorders in fetuses and sperm production.
  26. Vitamin D
    Sun stimulates production of Vitamin D in humans. Darker skin -> blocks more UV radiation, causes Vitamin D deficiency -> leads to Rickets, deformations that hinder reproduction.
  27. Rickets
    deficiency of Vitamin D, causes deformations that hinder reproduction.
  28. Cline
    a gradual change in some phenotypic characteristics from one population to the next. Ex: skin pigmentation of living people, skin color changes in a gradient from dark to light depending on the latitude.
  29. Hypertension
    high blood pressure
  30. Clarence Gravlee
    University of Florida, did a study on why hypertension affects African American population more on others. Reason: limited access to health care and diet, and race being a part of the medical problem. people's social classification -> stress -> high blood pressure.
  31. Adaptability
    one's ability to to respond to change in an environment.
  32. Acclimation
    short term changes to a stressor, can take anywhere from seconds to minutes.
  33. Homeothermic
    maintaining a relative, stable temperature
  34. Vasoconstriction
    narrows blood vessels to reduce blood flow and heat loss
  35. Vasodilation
    widens blood vessels to help dissipate heat
  36. Acclimatization
    long term changes to a stressor.
  37. Hypoxia
    organism's body temperature falls below normal range, leading to improper body functions and possibly death.
  38. Hemoglobin
    iron-containing substance in blood cells that transport oxygen from heart to rest of body
  39. Genetic Adaptation
    change in variant to increase fitness, selected because of advantageous benefits.
  40. Bergmann's Rule
    animal's size is heat-related; smaller bodies are adapted to hot environments, larger bodies adapted to cold environment.
  41. Allen's Rule
    animal's limb lengths are heat-related; long limbs = hot environments, short limbs = cold environment.
  42. Developmental Adaptation
    physiological and structural changes, occurs ONLY during childhood.
  43. Barrel Chest
    chest of greater circumference when compared to sea level people, occurs ONLY during childhood in high altitudes
  44. Behavioral/cultural adaptations
    ability to adapt to environments through artificial vitamins and improved shelter/clothing.
  45. Primate pattern
    set of traits that have 4 major categories.
  46. Prehensility
    ability to grasp items.
  47. Opposable thumb
    able to touch thumb to every other finger.
  48. Prehensile Tail
    able to grasp items with tail
  49. tooth types
    incisors, canines, premolars and molars
  50. Dietary Plasticity
    a diet's flexibility to adapt to a given environment
  51. Dental Formula
    • contains 1 quadrant (4 quadrants in total in mouth)
    • placental mammals:
    • humans:
    • Humans: 8 x 4 = 32 total teeth
  52. tooth comb
    sort of specialization thats used for cleaning/grooming, found in lemurs and lorises
  53. Canine-premolar honing complex
    dental form in which upper canines are sharpened against lower third premolars when jaws are closed (found ONLY in old world monkeys and apes)
  54. Stereoscopic Vision
    overlapping vision that gives depth perception
  55. Postorbital bar
    bone which runs around eye socket of prosimians (except tarsiers)
  56. Olfaction
    sense of smell
  57. Rhinarium
    wet nose
  58. Neocortex
    deals with consciousness in brain
  59. Parental investment
    parent's investment in caretaking of child
  60. Learned behavior
    behaviors that are learned through examples. ex: emo cleans potatoes in water, others follow.
  61. Sociality
    tendency to associate with others
  62. Behavioral flexibility
    ability to fight and reconcile within a given period of time
  63. Prosimian
    primates having large ears and eyes, characterized by noctural habits. ex: lemurs, bushbabies, tarsiers.
  64. Anthropoids (simians)
    higher primates, include monkeys, apes and humans
  65. Diurnal
    active during the day
  66. Terrestrial
    living on land
  67. Arboreal
    living on trees
  68. New World Monkeys
    central and south america, noses projected outward. ex: spider monkeys, capuchin monkeys.
  69. Old World Monkeys
    Africa and Asia, downward facing nostrils. ex: toques, macaques, and baboons.
  70. Hominoids
    apes and humans, differ by body size and no tails, also shoulder joints are on back
  71. Captive Research
    research when primates are in a captive environments, only able to control testings
  72. Field research
    able to research naturally, suitable topics: ecology and feeding behaviors
  73. ethnoprimatology
    study of human and non-human primate interactions with variation in human ecology and culture. Nonhuman primate cultures depict direction relationship between nonhuman primates and humans.
  74. Primate Community Ecology
    coexisting with other species, found in same environment. ex: chimps and baboons grooming, tibetan macaques (mobile) and guizhou snub nosed monkeys (lazy)
  75. social grouping types
    1) one male, multifemale, 2) one female, multimale, 3) multimale, multifemale (most common), 4) all male 5) one male for each female, 6) solitary
  76. Dominance
    behavior pattern which is defined as differential access to resources
  77. Dominance hierarchy
    individuals are ranked relative to others; physical traits, ability come into play. inheritance can also play a role.
  78. Aggression
    occurs within groups and between groups, usually solved by hierachy (alphas)
  79. Affiliation
    use of space, grooming, reconciliation, and cooperation
  80. Cooperation
    showing tolerance and affiliative qualities
  81. Kin selection
    altruistic behaviors that increase fitness of donor's relative. Simplify: primates will act altruisticly to kins and relatives.
  82. Cultural behavior
    animal culture, questioned and debated in 1950s of Japan with japanese macaques (emo washing potatoes)
  83. Cumulative cultural evolution
    behaviors shared among those in specific group which are transmitted from generation to generation via social learning
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