Philosophy Exam 2

  1. Political philosophy
    concerns itself with what the origin and function of government is.
  2. Social philosophy
    the most just way to distribute wealth in a society.
  3. natural right
    right we are born with that can't be taken away or given by government.
  4. natural law
    any principles or rules discovered by reason.
  5. state of nature
    theoretical understanding of how humans would act without government.
  6. covenant (Hobbes)
    agreement between citizens to transfer power to the sovereign.
  7. property (Locke)
    a natural right to own the fruits of labor.
  8. bourgeoisie (Marx)
    a class of capitalists who own all of the means of production.
  9. proletariat (Marx)
    a class of working wage-earners who own none of the means of production.
  10. liberal state (Rawls)
    democratic state that sets a minimum standard of living and provides opportunities, through taxation, for the disadvantaged.
  11. veil of ignorance (Rawls)
    game we play in order to come up with the best society, involving pretending we can't see what makes us different.
  12. minimal state (Nozick)
    minimum government that only functions to protect us from fraud and force.
  13. Hobbes wrote:
  14. Locke wrote:
    Two Treatises on Governmnet
  15. Marx wrote:
    The Communist Manifesto
  16. Rawls wrote:
    Theory of Justice
  17. Nozick wrote:
    Anarchy, State, and Utopia
  18. Hobbes: Life in a state of nature___
    is unbearable
  19. Hobbes: Why do we form government?
    to survuve
  20. Hobbes: 3 causes of conflict are____
    competition, glory, and diffidence
  21. Hobbes said we are all __
    equal (as in equally able)
  22. social contract theory:
    government started by contract
  23. meritocracy:
    capitalism/right to pass on inheritance
  24. Hobbes: Rebellion is ___
    NOT justified
  25. Hobbes: our natural right is ____
    to life, it's a biological right.
  26. Hobbes: 3 natural laws
    • -seek peace
    • -make and agreement with others for peace (covenant)
    • -abide by the covenant
  27. Hobbes: Laws=
    justice; there are no unjust laws
  28. Hobbes: laws are____
    the will of the sovereign (monarch)
  29. Locke: 3 things lacking in a state of nature
    • -impartial judges
    • -uniform laws
    • -power of enforcement
  30. Locke: natural rights (God given)
    • -life/health
    • -liberty
    • -possessions/property
  31. Locke: limits are____
    • -none on money
    • -limit on property, take as much as you can use
  32. Locke's 2 influences:
    • -Darwin (evolutionary theory)
    • -Hegel (conflict/resolution theory)
  33. Dialectical Materialism:
    • 1) history is a series of interrelated effects
    • 2) history is progressive
    • 3) conflicts in society are caused by economic class conflicts
  34. Economic Criticism of Capitalism:
    • 1) natural conflict between 2 classes
    • 2) capitalism creates cycles of depression and recession
  35. Moral Criticisms of Capitalism:
    • 1) destroys man's inherent value
    • 2) hurts family (i.e.: child labor)
    • 3) creates unnecessary attachment to material things
    • 4) creates a nation of dependents
  36. Marx's view:
    "From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs."
  37. Ideal Communist Society:
    • 1) classless society
    • 2) focuses on real world needs and not false ones
    • 3) abolition of private enterprise (collectives)
    • 4) rotation of labor
    • 5) equitable distribution of wealth and goods
  38. Nozick: 2 purposes for governmnet
    • 1) prevent fraud
    • 2) prevent force
  39. Nozick's famous quote:
    "Initial acquisition must be just"
  40. Rawls: We are born ___
    NOT equal
  41. Rawls: principles of a just society
    • 1) equal and maximum liberty
    • 2) wealth and power is to be distributed equally EXCEPT where an unequal distribution benefits society and the disadvantaged
  42. Rawls: Socially primary goods
    • 1) wealth
    • 2) liberty
    • 3) equal opportunity
    • 4) self-respect (dignity)
  43. Nozick: Obligation to the poor?
Card Set
Philosophy Exam 2
Stuff for phi. exam number 2