1. Growth factors
    • PDGF(platelet derived growth factor)
    • Transforming GF
  2. Growth factor receptor
    • ERBB1- Squamous ca of lung
    • ERBB2- Breast cancer
  3. signal transducing protein
    • RAS(Human tumor has mutated RAS)
    • Mutated RAS will continues to recieve signal to divide
  4. Nuclear Transcripton factors
    • MYC(activate transcrip of several GFs genes)
    • Repress inhibitor of CDKs--> continue to prolif
  5. CDKs
    • Determine whether cell gonna enter cell cycle or not: dysregulation favor cell proliferation
    • OVEREXPRESSION in human tumor

    Melanoma, lymphoma, esophageal carcinoma
  6. Tumor supressor gene
    RB gene: DNA synth break

    TP53: single most target for genetic alteration
  7. pRB gene
    Tumor supressor gene

    • pRB gene bind with DNA transcription factor
    • If Rb released, DNA systh proceed.
  8. TP53
    • tumor supressor gene
    • Single most target for genetic alteration in human tumor

    Li Fremeni syndrom: increase rate of cancer

    • Function:
    • slow down DNA replication
    • Activate DNA repair enzyme
    • can't repair- Suicide gene, Apoptosis
  9. Evasion of Apoptosis
    BCL2, P53, C MYC
  10. BLC2
    Prototypic anti-apoptosis gene

    Low grade lymphoma

    Grow relatively slow because they do not die as quickly
  11. Karyotypic change in tumor

    Balanced translocation
    Philadelphia chromosome in

    chronic myelogenous leukemia
  12. Karyotypic change in Tumor- Deletion
    Colon and oral cancer
  13. RNA Oncogenic virus
    Human T cell leukemia virus type I ass with T cell leukemia/ Lymphoma
  14. DNA oncogenic virus
    • Human Papillomavirus(HPV)
    • EBV(Epstein Barr Virus)
    • Hepatitis B virus (HBV)
  15. What test do we do for Leukemia?
    Flow Cytology
  16. HPV
    DNA oncogenic virus

    • Cause benign squamous papilloma
    • Verruca vulgaris(warts)
  17. EBV
    DNA oncogenic virus

    • Burkitts
    • B cell lymphoma
    • Hodkins
    • Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
  18. HVB
    Hepatocellular carcinoma
  19. Tumor antigen
    Tumor specific antigen

    Tumor associated antigen
  20. Tumor specific antigen
    Antigen is only associated with tumor cells

    • Cancer testis antigen
    • MEGA-1(Melanoma-associated antigen)

    Not always expressed in melanomas, can be seen in the other cancers.
  21. Tumor associated antigen
    Prostate specific antigen(PSA)

    • Differentiation-Specific Antigen
    • maybe found on normal cell but overexpressed or represent a specilized function of cells
  22. Antitumor Effector Mechanism
    • CD8+
    • NK cells
    • Macrophage
    • Humoral Mechanism
  23. CD8+
  24. CD8+ plays against?
    Antitumor effector

    • Virus- induced neoplasm
    • Burkitt's lymphoma: DNA oncogenic virus
  25. What cell can kill tumor cells without sensitizing them? First line of defense
    NK cell
  26. Explain antitumor effect of Humoral response?
    • Activation of Complement
    • Antibody-dependent cytotoxicity by NK cells
  27. Macrophage incorporate with what cells to distroy tumor cells?
    T cells and NK cells.

    May act by mechanism used to

    • destryo microbes or by
    • producing TNF-alpha
  28. Progessive loss of fat and lean body mass, profound weakness, anorexia and anemia, usually associated with advanced cancer.

    Involve in TNF, IL1(cytokine secreted by endothelial cell)
  29. What is paraneoplastic syndrome?
    may represent early manifestifation of occult disease

    May represent significant clinical problem

    Mimic metastatic disease, confound treatment
  30. Example of paraneoplastic syndrome?
    • Hypercalcemia
    • cushing's syndrome
    • Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis
    • paraneoplastic pemphigus
  31. What laboratory diagnosis of cancer is used to diagnosis
  32. What laboratory diagnosis of cancer is used to diagnosis superficial and deep seated masses?
    Fine needle aspiration biopsy
  33. This lab diagnosis of cancer is prone to error but quick!
    Frozen section biopsy
  34. This diagnosis is primarily used to screen cervical cancer.
    Cytologic smear

    This one supplemented by HPV testing
  35. Specific antibody-quided detection of tumor-specific or associated antigen to determine the precise classification or subclassification of tumor?
Card Set
Patho midterm I