What is the sociocultural perspective?
- Socio = society
- Cultural = ethnicity or race
(How they affect behavior)
What questions do psychologists of the cognitive perspective ask?
- 1. "How do we think"?
- 2. "How do we pay attention?"
- 3. "How do we remember?"
- 4. "How do we solve problems?"
- 5. "How do we form beliefs?"
- 6. "How do we learn a language?"
- 7. "How do we acquire moral codes and experience emotions?"
What is the S.O.R. theory?
Stimulus, Organism, Response. Each organism thinks for themselves, and each reaction is different.
Who disagreed with the S.R. Theory and what did they develop?
Albert Bandura and he changed it to the S.O.R. theory. (Stimulus, Organism, Response)
What did John B. Watson, Ivan Pavlov, and B.F. Skinner all conclude with the nurture perspective?
Every stimulus and reaction is predetermined. They created the S.R. Phenomina.
Who followed in John B. Watson's footsteps in studying the nurture perspective?
Ivan Pavlov and B.F. Skinner.
Who was the first person to study the nurture perspective?
John B. Watson in 1913.
What does the nature vs. nurture debate study?
- Nature = Genetics
- Nurture = Environment
(How they affect behavior)
What is the behavioral perspective also known as?
The learning perspective.
What questions does a psychologist of the biological perspective ask?
- 1. "How do electrical impulses shoot along the nervous system?"
- 2. "How do hormones affect the body and the mind?"
- 3. "How do chemical substances flow across the brain cells and affect behavior?"
- 4. "How do bodily events affect moods and emotions?"
What is the biological perspective of psychology?
The study of how the body affects the mind and vise versa.
How much of our thoughts are conscious and unconscious?
10% Conscious; 90% Unconscious
What is the proof that material is stored in the unconscious mind?
Dreams, Slips of tongue, Sarcastic remarks
Who created psychoanalysis?
Sigmund Freud. (Vienna, Austria)
What is functionalism?
To study the functions of consciousness.
Who created functionalism?
What is structuralism?
The study of the elements of consciousness.
Who created structuralism?
E.B. Titchner. (Student of Wilhelm Wundt)
Who is considered "The father of modern psychology"?
Wilhelm Wundt. (1879 in Leipzig, Germany)
Who is the father of empiricism?
Who created the term "reflex action"?
What is reflex action?
An automatic reaction (blinking with air, hot stove)
Who is known as the father of medicine?
What did Aristotle and Plato's theory lack?
Who were the founders of philosophy?
Aristotle and Plato.
What is the third and final definition of psychology?
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organisms physical state, mental state, and external environment.
Who created the second definition of psychology?
What is the second defintion of psychology?
The study of behavior.
What are the critisisms of psychological tests?
Patients will try to impress examiner with their skills or knowlege.
What are psychological tests?
- Procedures that are used to measure personality traits, emotional states, aptitudes, interests, intelligence, abilities, and values.
- *They must be standardized (Have uniform procedures for giving and scoring the test)
What are the critisisms of surveys?
THey are usually biased, not based on everyone.
What are surveys?
- Questionaires and interviews that ask people directly about their experiences or opinions. They are the cheapest and quickest way to study.
- *In order for surveys to be successful, they must have a representative sample.
What are the critisisms of observational studies?
They are based on evironment; reactive observation
What are observational studies?
Study in which the researcher carefully and systematically observes and records behavior without interfering in anyway with the behavior.
What are the critisisms of case studies?
Vague questions; patients on medications; patients with mood swings; everyone has different opinions.
What are case studies?
- Detailed historical tests and evaluation with description of a particular patient under treatment.
- *What are the symptoms of the patient?
- *How frequency do those symptoms how?
- *Which childhood experience instigated those symptoms?
- *Which people of circumstance aggrivate those symptoms?
What makes psychological research scientific?
- 1. Precision - hypothesis (a statement that attempts to describe, explain or predict behavior)
- 2. Skepticism
- 3. Reliance on empiracle evidence
- 4. Willing to make risky predictions "The principle of falsifiability"
- 5. Openness
What are the seven perspectives of psychology?
- 1. The biological perspective
- 2. The behavioral perspective
- 3. The cognitive perspective
- 4. The sociocultural perspective
- 5. The psychodynamic perspective
- 6. The feministic perspective
- 7. The humanistic perspective
What does the adrenal medula secrete?
- Epinephrine and norepinephrine.
- *First 7 reactions of synaptic nervous system*
What is the inner layer of the adrenal gland called?
The adrenal medula.
What does cortisol do?
Releases glucose from the liver
What does the adrenal cortex secrete?
What is the outer layer of an adrenal gland called?
The adrenal cortex
What hormone regulates the sleep cycle and where is it found?
Melatonin; found in pineal body
*It creates the 8th reaction of the sympathetic nervous system : Stimulating glucose release by the liver
Where is insulin produced and what does it do?
It is produced in the pancrease; and it regulates blood sugar.
What is the series of reactions of the parasympathetic nervous system?
- 1. Decreases heart rate
- 2. Decreases blood pressure
- 3. Pupils contract
- 4. Stimulates salivation
- 5. Activates digestion
- 6. Inhibits glucose
- 7. Conserves energy
What is the series of reactions of the sympathetic nervous system?
- 1. Increases heart rate
- 2. Increases blood pressure
- 3. Pupils dialate
- 4. Stimulates sweat glands
- 5. Inhibits digestion
- 6. Decreases urine volume
- 7. Increases secretion of adrenal glands
- 8. Stimulates glucose released by the liver
The parasympathetic nervous system may also be referred to as what?
The sympathetic nervous system may also be referred to as what?
What two components make up the autonomic nervous system?
The sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system
What two compontents make up the peripheral nervous system?
The somatic nervous system and hte autonomic nervous system
What two parts of the body make up the central nervous system?
The brain (protected by the skull) and the spinal cord (protected by the vertebral column)
What are the two branches of the nervous system?
The central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system
How do drugs affect our synaptic transmission?
- 1. They increase or decrease the amount of neurotransmitter in the synaptic knob
- 2. They affect the length of time the neurotransmitter remains in the synaptic space
- 3. They can block or seal the receptor site and prevent the neurotransmitter from acting
When endorphins levels are lowered in our bodies, what is the end result we notice?
What does scizophrenia literally mean?
- Scizo = Breakdown
- Phrenia = Though process
(Breakdown of thought processes)
When levels of Serotonin and Norepinephrine are out of balance, what is the result in our bodies?
When stress and anxiety levels are elevated, what increases as well in our bodies?
Our levels of Norepinephrine.
When levels of Acetylcholine drop in the body, what disease now affects our bodies?
What are four sources of Serotonin?
- 1. Sunlight
- 2. Exercise
- 3. Chocolate
- 4. High-carb diet
If there is not enough Serotonin in the body throughout life, what may we be diagnosed with?
If there is too much Seratonin in the body at birth, what disease do we have?
True or false. When the substance Dopamine [Da] goes down in the body, we may suffer from Alzheimer's disease.
False. When Dopamine [Da] goes down in the body, we may suffer from Parkinson's disease.
True or false. The receptor sites are the areas between the neurons that bring dendrites together.
False. The receptor sites are the areas of the dendrites that receive neurotransmitter substances from the previous dendrites.
True or false. The synaptic space is the part of the neuron that sends out the neurotransmitters to the next neuron.
False. The synaptic space is the area between the dendrites of two neurons that neurotransmitters are passed through.
What are the functions of glial cells?
- 1. Provides nutrition and removes waste from the neuron cells
- 2. Provides neurons with myelin sheets
- 3. Removes dead neurons and replaces them with new ones
True or false. The myelin sheath is a fatty tissue that increases the speed of inormation is transfered in the neuron.
Where is information received in the neuron?
True or false. Psychology is a neuropsychology.
What are the 4 fields of neuroscience?
- 1. Neurology
- 2. Psysiology
- 3. Biology
- 4. Pharmacology
What is neuroscience?
The interdisciplinary study concerned with the structure, function, development, and biochemistry of the mind.
What is neuropsychology?
The field of psychology concerned with the neural and biochemical bases of behavior and mental processes.
What are the critisims of double and single blind studies?
- 1. The more control the expermenter establishes, the more artificial the experiment is.
- 2. Laboratory experiments may not be a generalization to real life.
- 3. In their need to cooperate, subjects may behave in ways that they would ordinarily not.
What is a double blind study?
The experimenter and subjects both do now know which group the participants belong to.
What is a single blind study?
Subjects do not know which group they belong to. (Experimental or control group)
What are experimenter effects?
The unintended changes in subjects behavior due to cues given by the experimenter.
What is the control group in an experiment?
The group in which subjects are treatd exactly like experimental groups, except for the manipulation of the independant variable.
What is the experimental group in an experiment?
The group upon which the independant group is manipulated.
What is an experiment?
A controlled test off of a hypothesis in which the researcher manipulates one variable to discover its effect on another.
Every experimental control group has a hypothesis and two groups associated with the hypothesis. What are the two groups?
The experimental group. And the control group (which uses placebos)
What is a dependant variable?
The reaction of subjects that the researcher tries to predict.
What is an independant variable?
The aspect of an experimental situation that is manipulated by the researcher.
What is negative correlation?
High values of one variable are associated with low values of another variable. And low variables of a variable are associated with high variables of another variable .
What are the critisisms of positive correlation?
You will barely ever have 100% accurate results. They are very inaccurate.
What is an example of positive correlation?
If a persons height goes up, their weight will also go up.
What is positive correlation?
High values of one variable are associated with high values of another variable. And low values of a variable are associated with low values of another variable.
What is the correlation coefficient?
A statistic that conveys both the size of the correlation and its direction.
What are correlation studies?
Descriptive studies that look for a consistant relationship between two variables.
What does the humanistic perspective study?
Free will and responsibility.
Who contributed to the humanistic perspective?
Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow.
What is the superego?
- The moral arm. Distincts good from bad.
- (Held in septum)
- *Serial killers have been proven to have a damaged septum
What is the ego?
- The reality portion of the mind.
- "Keeps ID in check."
What is the Id?
- The instinctive portion of the mind (Passions, Urges, and Desires)
- (Held in amygalda)
What were Sigmund Freud's 3 parts of the human personality?
- 1. The Id
- 2. The Ego
- 3. The Superego
Who created the psychodynamic perspective?
What does the temporal lobe control?
Language, interpreting and expressing emotions, memory (with the help of the hippocampus), and processing sounds.
True or false. Carl Wenicke's area is associated with learning languages.
True or false. Paul Broca's area is associated with learning languages.
- False. Paul Broca's area is associated with speech and articulation.
- *Broca's aphasia is the lack of speech and articulation
What 5 aspects does the right hemisphere contain/control?
- 1. Visual-spatial ability
- 2. Reading maps, finding directions
- 3. Facial recognition
- 4. Non-verbal sounds
- 5. Appreciating art and music
What five aspects does the left hemisphere contain/control?
- 1. Paul Broca's area
- 2. Carl Wenicke's area
- 3. Logical thinking
- 4. Sequential tasks
- 5. Experiencing and expressing emotions
What 3 things make up the cerebral hemispheres.
- 1. The left hemisphere
- 2. The corpus collosum (separates L & R hemispheres)
- 3. The right hemisphere
True or false. The occipital lobe is also called the visual cortex.
True or false. The Parietal lobe is also called the somatosensory cortex.
What does the parietal lobe control?
Pressure pain, touch, temperature, and tase.
What does the frontal lobe control?
Motor skills. It controls 600 muscles of the body, it makes plans and organizes, takes initiative, and controls creative thinking
True or false. The frontal lobe controls auditory senses.
False. The frontal lobe controls motor skills.
What four parts make up the cerebral cortex?
- 1. Temporal lobe
- 2. Parietal lobe
- 3. Occipital lobe
- 4. Frontal lobe
What three parts make up the limbic system and what do they each control?
- 1. Hippocampus (memory)
- 2. Amygdala (aggression)
- 3. Septum (restraining and guilt)
True or false. The pituitary gland is also referred to as the master gland, or growth gland.
What does the hypothalamus control and regulate?
It controls all power drives (hunger, thirst, emotion, and sex). It regulates body temperature. It controls comlete autonomic nervous system. And it controls the complete endocrine system (hormones).
True or false. The olfactory bulb processes the sense of touch.
False. The olfactory bulb processes the sense of smell.
What does the thalamus process?
Vision, hearing, temperature, and taste.
What are the five parts that make up the forebrain?
- 1. The thalamus
- 2. The olfactory bulb
- 3. The hypothalamus
- 4. The pituitary gland
- 5. The limbic system
True or false. The midbrain connects all the different parts of the brain.
What does the cerebellum control?
Muscular coordination and balance.
True or false. The cerebellum is also referred to as the higher brain.
False. It is also called the lesser brain.
What tasks does the reticular activating system [RAS] control?
- 1. Screening out irrelevant information
- 2. Taking important information and passing it to higher centers
- 3. Helping to focus and pay attention
True or false. The medulla is involved in pre-wired functions like breathing and heart rate.
What does the pons control?
Sleeping, waking, dreaming, and facial expressions
What are the four separate parts of the brain stem?
- 1. The pons
- 2. The medulla
- 3. The reticular activating systen
- 4. The cerebellum
What does M.R.I. stand for and how is it used?
Magnetic resonance imaging. It is all a computerized scan of the brain. No injections or dyes are used. This is the most current form of studying the brain.
True or false. The P.E.T. scan uses computerized images to scan the different parts of the brain and see how they are working.
False. The P.E.T. scan works by injecting dye into the patient to see what parts of the brain are funtioning.
What is involved during the process of E.E.G.?
Using electrodes on the scalp of the patient to scan brain waves
What does E.E.G. stand for?
What was the least two scientific methods ever used of studying the brain?
Usuing brain damaged victims. And the Lesion method which involved surgically removing parts of the brain to see how patient reacts after.
What does progesterone do?
It strengthens the uterus for pregnancy (takes 7 years after first initial menstural cycle)
What are estrogens?
The female sex hormone
What are androgens?
The male sex hormone (testosterone)
What are the three sex hormones found in the human body?
- 1. androgens
- 2. estrogens
- 3. progesterone
What is the oldest definition of psychology?
The study of the mind.