What was the major principal of Stoicism and who founded it?
- Living a virtuous life in harmony with God and nature
What was the major principal of Skepticism and who founded it?
- You don't know anything (including the fact that you know that you don't know anything)
What was the major principal of Epicureanism and who founded it?
- Things that felt good were pleasurable, and pleasurable was the ultimate desire; pleasure could be found through self-control and moderation
What physical attributes made the Indus valley so desirable?
- There were mountains to the North
- There was a desert to the East
- It was surrounded by the Indus and the Ganges rivers
Monsoon winds blew what types of air?
Dry and wet depending on the season
What environmental issues did monsoons create?
- Unpredictable floods
- Changing course of rivers
Why is little known about the Indus Valley civilizations?
- The language isn't translated
- The archaeological digs yield little information
What were the two major cities of the Indus River valley civilizations (one of the first of its kind)?
Name some characteristics of the Indus River Valley civilization.
- Compact, about 1 sq mi in total
- Fortress in the middle for storage, protection, assembly, bathing
- 2 Story buildings to maximize space effeciency
- Indoor bathrooms
- Irrigation system for farms (usually outside of the city)
Name some technological advancements of the Indus River Valley civilization.
- Plumbing system/irrigation system
- Domesticated animals
- Standard system of weight/measures
- Prevalent use of copper, bronze, gold
Through what country did the Aryans travel when they conquered the Indus Valley civilizations?
Why did the Aryans leave the Indus Valley, and where did they go?
- The cities' advanced technologies fell into a state of disrepair and the Aryans could not maintain them.
- They went to the Ganges river.
From where did the Hittites come?
Anatolia (Turkey/Asia Minor)
What technological advancement made the Hittites famous, and how did they use it?
- They used it to cut crops; used the slash/burn method
What major crop did the Aryans grow and what technique did they use to grow it feasibly?
- Irrigation system and terracing
What social event occurred as a result of the taxation of Aryan farmers?
People developed specialized divisions of labor that provided diversity in the culture.
In the caste system, how could one change his/her caste?
If one broke the rules of his/her caste, to what group was he/she sent?
He was out"casted" and sent to the untouchables group.
What were the names for castes and subcastes?
Varna and Jati
Describe the Indian social order hierarchy.
Brahman (priests/philosophers) - Intellectual
Warriors (government officials and warriors) - Political
Merchants (producers) - Economic
Servants - People told what to do
If you do our _________ (duties), and we don't get ________, then we can join with _________. (according to Hindu tradition)
What were some advantages/disadvantages of the Caste system?
Advantages: People knew where they belong, civilization was organized, diversity was promoted and accepted.
Disadvantages: One could not marry out, rebellion was more likely, one could not always do the job of his choice, only the warrior class could fight in wars.
What is a transcendental religion? How was a transcendental religion's ultimate goal achieved.
A religion that puts emphasis on a real world that is beyond our senses. This reality is pure, perfect, and hidden. The goal was achieved by asceticism/mysticism (bodily discipline)
Before transcendentalism developed in India, the Aryans had many gods for many different things. As transcendentalism developed, what three major works evolved, and what was their significance?
- 1. Vedas: Aryan poetry set to music in Sanskrit (which could only be read by priests [which created a need for the Brahmanas])
- 2. Brahmanas: Set rules of what to do, and what not to do, translated from Vedas.
- 3. Upanishads: (created by Mystics) taught how to achieve wholeness with Moksha
Name and explain the three life stages of Hinduism.
- Student: Learns much, best stage for learning/taking in the world, time to discover and be free
- Householder: Farmer/merchant/parent; a person with responsibility to others; had little time for religious activities other than basic rituals
- Grandparent: Retired, possessing more free time, could meditate more, last chance to achieve Moksha
Who founded Buddhism? When did he do it?
- Siddhartha Gautama
- C. 500 BCE
Tell the story of Siddhartha Gautama's childhood.
His parents were told that if he stayed home and lived a sheltered, perfect life, he would be a great political ruler. He lived at a palace, and never experienced any hardships until he went on a chariot ride one day.
What are the three woes of man? What three things caused Siddhartha Gautama to believe in these?
- Weariness - The old man
- Disease - The man who had leprosy
- Death - The people crying for a dead man
He experienced these three things when he took a chariot ride outside of the palace.
After seeing the three woes of man, what did Siddhartha do?
He went to the forest, meditated, fasted, tried to help out humankind, and finally, while sitting under a Bo tree, found the secret of life (enlightenment) which he believed he was to share with others.
What are the four noble truths?
- 1. There is sorrow in the world
- 2. Sorrow is caused by wanting what we cannot have
- 3. We end sorrow by ending our wants
- 4. Following the noble 8 fold path will lead to Nirvana
When Buddhism split, what were the names of the two groups that emerged? What areas accepted these beliefs?
- Maharyana - China, Japan, Korea
- Theravada- SE Asia, Burma
When Buddhism split and two groups emerged, what were the differences in their beliefs?
Maharyana: Buddha is divine (explains all of the Buddha statues and pictures), one who achieved enlightenment is a Bodhisattva
Theravada: Monks (not for life), one obtains enlightenment on his own
Who was the head of Tibetan Buddhism?
In Buddhism, what were the Sangha and Dharma?
- The Sangha was the religious order
- The Dharma was Buddha's teachings
When did the Mauryan and Gupta Empires begin?
- Mauryan: 322 BC
- Gupta: 320 AD
(not completely important, just know that they started around the same time in BC and AD respectively)
When was the Indus River Valley Civilization formed?
C. 2500 BCE
When did the Aryans come to India?
C. 1500 BCE
What was the southern tip of India called?