Root Words

  1. allo-
    different (allosteric site: a specific receptor site on some part of an enzyme molecule remote from the active site)
  2. ana-
    up (anabolic pathway: a metabolic pathway that consumes energy to build complex molecules from simpler ones)
  3. bio-
    life (bioenergetics: the study of how organisms manage their energy resources)
  4. cata-
    down (catabolic pathway: a metabolic pathway that releases energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpler ones)
  5. endo-
    within (endergonic reaction: a reaction that absorbs free energy from its surroundings)
  6. ex-
    out (exergonic reaction: a reaction that proceeds with a net release of free energy)
  7. kinet-
    movement (kinetic energy: the energy of motion)
  8. therm-
    heat (thermodynamics: the study of the energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter)
  9. amphi- 7
    dual (amphipathic molecule: a molecule that has both a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic region)
  10. aqua- 7
  11. -pori 7
    a small opening (aquaporin: a transport protein in the plasma membrane of a plant or animal cell that specifically facilitates the diffusion of water across the membrane)
  12. co- 7
  13. trans-
    across (cotransport: the coupling of the "downhill" diffusion of one substance to the "uphill" transport of another against its own concentration gradient)
  14. electro- 7
  15. -genic 7
    producing (electrogenic pump: an ion transport protein generating voltage across a membrane)
  16. endo- 7
  17. cyto- 7
    cell (endocytosis: the movement of materials into a cell. Cell-eating
  18. exo- 7
    outer (exocytosis: the movement of materials out of a cell)
  19. hyper- 7
  20. -tonus 7
    tension (hypertonic: a solution with a higher concentration of solutes)
  21. hypo- 7
    lower (hypotonic: a solution with a lower concentration of solutes)
  22. iso- 7
    same; (isotonic: solutions with equal concentrations of solutes)
  23. phago- 7
    eat (phagocytosis: cell eating)
  24. pino- 7
    drink (pinocytosis: cell drinking)
  25. plasm- 7
  26. -lyso 7
    loosen (plasmolysis: a phenomenon in walled cells in which the cytoplasm shrivels and the plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall when the cell loses water to a hypertonic environment)
  27. centro- 6
    the center
  28. -soma 6
    a body (centrosome: material present in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells and important during cell division)
  29. chloro- 6
    green (chloroplast: the site of photosynthesis in plants and eukaryotic algae)
  30. cili- 6
    hair (cilium: a short hair-like cellular appendage with a microtubule core)
  31. cyto- 6
    cell (cytosol: a semifluid medium in a cell in which are located organelles)
  32. -ell 6
    small (organelle: a small formed body with a specialized function found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells)
  33. endo- 6
    inner (endomembrane system: the system of membranes within a cell that includes the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, and the plasma membrane)
  34. eu- 6
    true (eukaryotic cell: a cell that has a true nucleus)
  35. extra- 6
    outside (extracellular matrix: the substance in which animal tissue cells are embedded)
  36. flagell- 6
    whip (flagellum: a long whip-like cellular appendage that moves cells)
  37. glyco- 6
    sweet (glycoprotein: a protein covalently bonded to a carbohydrate)
  38. lamin- 6
    sheet/layer (nuclear lamina: a netlike array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus)
  39. lyso- 6
    loosen (lysosome: a membrane-bounded sac of hydrolytic enzymes that a cell uses to digest macromolecules)
  40. micro- 6
  41. -tubul 6
    a little pipe (microtubule: a hollow rod of tubulin protein in the cytoplasm of almost all eukaryotic cells)
  42. nucle-
  43. -oid 6
    like (nucleoid: the region where the genetic material is concentrated in prokaryotic cells)
  44. phago- 6
    to eat
  45. plasm- 6
  46. -desma
    a band or bond (plasmodesmata: an open channel in a plant cell wall)
  47. -kytos 6
    vessel (phagocytosis: a form of cell eating in which a cell engulfs a smaller organism or food particle)
  48. pro- 6
  49. karyo-
    nucleus (prokaryotic cell: a cell that has no nucleus)
  50. pseudo- 6
  51. -pod 6
    foot (pseudopodium: a cellular extension of amoeboid cells used in moving and feeding)
  52. thylaco- 6
    sac or pouch (thylakoid: a series of flattened sacs within chloroplasts)
  53. tono- 6
  54. -plastm 6
    molded (tonoplast: the membrane that encloses a large central vacuole in a mature plant cell)
  55. trans- 6
  56. -port 6
    a harbor (transport vesicle: a membranous compartment used to enclose and transport materials from one part of a cell to another)
  57. ultra- 6
    beyond (ultracentrifuge: a machine that spins test tubes at the fastest speeds to separate liquids and particles of different densities)
  58. vacu- 6
    empty (vacuole: sac that buds from the ER, Golgi, or plasma membrane)
Card Set
Root Words
Root Words of Ch 6, 7, 8