1. epitope
    small immunologically active site on Ag. what the receptors on Abs/immuneglobulins recognize
  2. another name for Ab
  3. which immunity is faster? which is more effective?
    • innate: fast, but unspecific
    • adaptive/acquired: slower, but more effective
  4. What are haptens? How are they related to Penicillin?
    molecules too small to stimulate an immune response. they combine with larger protein molecules to function as Ags.

    Penicillin is normally a nonantigenic molecule b/c it's so small. But it some ppl, it can chemically combine with body proteins to produce a complex that body generates an allergic rxn to. (i.e., Penicillin is a hapten in this instance.)
  5. What does CD stand for? What do they do?
    CD: cluster of differentiation. Found on B and T cells to help them function and to mark the diff types.
  6. What are the two important CD markers for T cells?
    • CD4: helper T cells
    • CD8: cytotoxic T cells
  7. What are human MHC proteins called?
    HLA: human leukoctye ag
  8. What are the functions of T cells?
    • activate T and B cells
    • control viral infections
    • graft rejection
    • delayed hypersensitivity
  9. What is a haplotype? How many does a person have?
    combination of HLA genes usually inherited as a unit. Everyone has 2 haplotypes, one from each parent.
  10. Uses for HLA typing / ID?
    • tissue or organ transplants
    • forensics
    • paternity evaluations
  11. Which type of adaptive immunity would respond to a lipid toxin?

    B cells produce Abs for many types of molecules, esp microbes with capsules rich in polysacchrides and lipid toxins. T cells respond only to protein Ags.
  12. Which type of cell is responsible for apoptic cell death? What is it?
    Cytotoxic T cells. Apoptic cell death is pre-programmed cell death so that we aren't huge d/t unlimited growth.
  13. Which Ig is most numerous?
  14. Which Ig can cross the placenta / transfer immunity to the fetus?
  15. Which Ig's activate the complement system?
    IgG, IgM
  16. Which Ig is found in body secretions like saliva and breast milk?
  17. Which Ig protects mucous membranes against local infections?
  18. Which Ig is responsible for the primary immune response to an Ag?
  19. Which Ig is the first type of Ab a neonate can make?
  20. Which Ig forms Abs to ABO blood Ags?
  21. Which Ig assists in the differentiation of B cells?
    IgD (*D-ifferentiation = Ig*D)
  22. Which Ig is found primarily on cell membranes of B cells?
  23. Which Ig is involved in inflammation, allergies, and parasitic infections?

    allergi*Es = Ig*E
  24. Which Ig causes mast cells and basophils to release histamine?

    histamin*E --> think allergi*Es
  25. Which Ig is responsible for asthma attacks? What happens?
    IgE. IgE binds to mast cells, causing them to degranulate and release histamine.
  26. What is any type of cell called that kills?
    effector cell
  27. Why don't natural killer cells killer our own cells?
    If natural killer cells contact MHC on normal cell, they don't kill.
  28. Which type of immunity are natural killer cells a part of?
  29. What is opsonization? Which molecule is responsible for it?
    Opsonization: coating of Ag/Ab complex to make it easier for macrophages to engulf and clear.

    The complement system causes opsonization.
  30. What are cytokines? Examples?
    Low molecular wt proteins made by cells that affect the behavior of other cells. Ex: IL, interferon, TNF, colony stimulating factor (CSF)
  31. What is tolerance? Why is it important?
    The ability of the immune system to be non-reactive to self Ags while producing immunity against foreign Ags. Protects us from autoimmune rxns and protects fetus and mother from interactions.
  32. When does the immune system begin to develop in a fetus?
    5-6 wks
  33. What are the primary lymphoid structures?
    When do they develop in a fetus?
    • bone marrow and thymus
    • develop middle of 1st trimester
  34. What would be responsible for an HIV- baby testing HIV positive during the first few weeks after birth?
    Mother's IgG
  35. When does the thymus reach adult size?
    When does it reach max activity?
    What percentage of max wt is it by age 50?
    • Adult size at <1 yr.
    • Max activity at puberty.
    • 15% of max activity remains by age 50 yrs.
  36. Which cell types respond to type I immediate hypersensitivity?
    mostly mast cells and CD4
  37. Which type of hypersensitivity could result in anaphylaxis?
    What happens to B/P? To airway?
    • Type I immediate
    • B/P plummets. Airway constriction.
  38. What are hives called?
  39. What is hayfever called?
    allergic rhinitis

    rhin = nose, like how rhino has a big "nose"
  40. List local type I immediate hypersens rxns.
    aka atopic rxns

    • uticaria
    • allergic rhinitis
    • atopic dermatitis
    • food allergies
  41. Which Ig's are involved in type II Ab-mediated hypersens?
    IgG, IgM
  42. examples of type II ab-mediated hypersens
    • mismatched blood transfusions
    • hemolytic disease of newborns - erythroblastis fetalis (Rh factor)
    • some drug rxns
  43. examples of type III immune complex-mediated hypersens
    • vasculitis as in SLE (systemic lupus erythrometosis)
    • kidney damage d/t acute glomerulonephritis
    • serum sickness - rash, lymphadenopathy, edema, fever, arthralgias, sometimes neuro sx
  44. what causes the local inflam associated with type III hypersens?
    insoluble Ag/Ab complexes that deposit in tissues
  45. what are the 4 types of hypersens?
    • I - immediate
    • II - Ab mediated
    • III - immune complex mediated
    • IV - cell mediated
  46. what causes the damage associated with type III hypersens?
    inflam response.

    (d/t deposit of insoluble Ab/Ag complexes in tissues, which activates complement --> inflam response)
  47. which type of hypersens would be responsible for a rxn to a fungus?
    type IV (cell mediated)

    responds to extracellular pathogens, like fungi, protozoa, and parasites. mediated by specifically sensitized T cells
  48. why use an epi pen in response to anaphylactic shock?
    anaphylaxis has acute, sever drop in BP. epi ^ BP.
  49. mechanisms of auto-immune disease
    • genetic susceptibility
    • enviro - infectious agents, anergy
    • release of sequestered Ags
    • molecular mimicry - like rheumatic heart disease, acute glomerulonephritis
    • superAgs
  50. anergy
    unresponsiveness to Ags

    breakdown of T cell anergy is an enviro factor contributing to autoimmune diseases
  51. type of immunity that would defend us against a virus

    cellular immunity defends against intracellular microbes, incl viruses, CA, some bact.
  52. type of immunity that defends us from extracellular microbes and toxins
  53. what's a superAg?
    things they cause?
    related substances in staph and strep exotoxins that can cause inappropriate activation of CD4 helper T cells.

    cause food poisoning and TSS
  54. s/s of AIDS
    • opportunistic infections - candidiasis, TB, toxoplasmosis, CMV
    • malignancies - Kaposi's sarcoma, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, cervical dysplasia
    • wasting syndrome
    • CNS degeneration - AIDS dementia complex
  55. what is PCP?
    pneumoncystis carinii pneumonia

    opportunistic resp infection
  56. toxoplasmosis cause and s/s
    parasite Toxoplasma gondii

    • s/s:
    • fever
    • HA
    • neuro dysfx
    • visual disturbances
    • seizures
  57. HAART
    could be which types of drugs?
    • highly active anti-retroviral tx
    • combo of at least 3 drugs, to target virus at multiple stages

    • -reverse transcriptase inhibitors - analog (puts something like nucleotide in its place so chain formation is blocked) or directly binding to enzyme to inhibit
    • -protease inhibitors - inhibits cleavage of polyprotein chain
    • -fusion inhibitors - prevents virus from fusing with CD4 cells
  58. HIV diagnostic tests?
    for Ag? for Ab?
    Which is more accurate?
    Ab: ELISA

    • Ag: PCR (polymerase chain rxn)
    • used for dx'ing newborns of HIV+ moms
    • more accurate, but more costly
  59. 8 steps in HIV life cycle
    • 1. attachment to surface of CD4 cells
    • 2. fusion - virus injects genetic info into cell
    • 3. RNA --> DNA via reverse transcriptase
    • 4. integration of viral DNA into CD4 cell DNA
    • 5. transcription - DNA --> mRNA
    • 6. translation - mRNA --> polyprotein
    • 7. cleavage - cut by protease
    • 8. assembly of baby viruses from proteins and viral RNA
  60. AIDS classification for cat. 1, 2, 3
    • 1: > 500 CD4 cells/mcl blood
    • 2: 200 - 499
    • 3: < 200

    can increase CD4 counts with drug tx
  61. describe latency phase of AIDS
    • no sx's
    • lasts ~10 yrs w/o tx, then progresses to overt phase
    • may have lymphadenopathy
  62. describe HIV primary infection phase
    viral load? CD4 count? sx's?
    • high viral load, until body produces Abs to control load
    • decreased CD4 count for short time, returns to normal until overt phase
    • flu-like sx's
  63. PML

    causing microbe
    progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

    • demyelinating
    • caused by Jackson Crutchfeld virus
    • high mortality --> fatal
    • sx: limb weakness, sensory loss, visual disturbances, ataxia, hemiporesis, seizures, visual disturbances
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