small immunologically active site on Ag. what the receptors on Abs/immuneglobulins recognize
another name for Ab
which immunity is faster? which is more effective?
innate: fast, but unspecific
adaptive/acquired: slower, but more effective
What are haptens? How are they related to Penicillin?
molecules too small to stimulate an immune response. they combine with larger protein molecules to function as Ags.
Penicillin is normally a nonantigenic molecule b/c it's so small. But it some ppl, it can chemically combine with body proteins to produce a complex that body generates an allergic rxn to. (i.e., Penicillin is a hapten in this instance.)
What does CD stand for? What do they do?
CD: cluster of differentiation. Found on B and T cells to help them function and to mark the diff types.
What are the two important CD markers for T cells?
CD4: helper T cells
CD8: cytotoxic T cells
What are human MHC proteins called?
HLA: human leukoctye ag
What are the functions of T cells?
activate T and B cells
control viral infections
What is a haplotype? How many does a person have?
combination of HLA genes usually inherited as a unit. Everyone has 2 haplotypes, one from each parent.
Uses for HLA typing / ID?
tissue or organ transplants
Which type of adaptive immunity would respond to a lipid toxin?
B cells produce Abs for many types of molecules, esp microbes with capsules rich in polysacchrides and lipid toxins. T cells respond only to protein Ags.
Which type of cell is responsible for apoptic cell death? What is it?
Cytotoxic T cells. Apoptic cell death is pre-programmed cell death so that we aren't huge d/t unlimited growth.
Which Ig is most numerous?
Which Ig can cross the placenta / transfer immunity to the fetus?
Which Ig's activate the complement system?
Which Ig is found in body secretions like saliva and breast milk?
Which Ig protects mucous membranes against local infections?
Which Ig is responsible for the primary immune response to an Ag?
Which Ig is the first type of Ab a neonate can make?
Which Ig forms Abs to ABO blood Ags?
Which Ig assists in the differentiation of B cells?
IgD (*D-ifferentiation = Ig*D)
Which Ig is found primarily on cell membranes of B cells?
Which Ig is involved in inflammation, allergies, and parasitic infections?
allergi*Es = Ig*E
Which Ig causes mast cells and basophils to release histamine?
histamin*E --> think allergi*Es
Which Ig is responsible for asthma attacks? What happens?
IgE. IgE binds to mast cells, causing them to degranulate and release histamine.
What is any type of cell called that kills?
Why don't natural killer cells killer our own cells?
If natural killer cells contact MHC on normal cell, they don't kill.
Which type of immunity are natural killer cells a part of?
What is opsonization? Which molecule is responsible for it?
Opsonization: coating of Ag/Ab complex to make it easier for macrophages to engulf and clear.
The complement system causes opsonization.
What are cytokines? Examples?
Low molecular wt proteins made by cells that affect the behavior of other cells. Ex: IL, interferon, TNF, colony stimulating factor (CSF)
What is tolerance? Why is it important?
The ability of the immune system to be non-reactive to self Ags while producing immunity against foreign Ags. Protects us from autoimmune rxns and protects fetus and mother from interactions.
When does the immune system begin to develop in a fetus?
What are the primary lymphoid structures?
When do they develop in a fetus?
bone marrow and thymus
develop middle of 1st trimester
What would be responsible for an HIV- baby testing HIV positive during the first few weeks after birth?
When does the thymus reach adult size?
When does it reach max activity?
What percentage of max wt is it by age 50?
Adult size at <1 yr.
Max activity at puberty.
15% of max activity remains by age 50 yrs.
Which cell types respond to type I immediate hypersensitivity?
mostly mast cells and CD4
Which type of hypersensitivity could result in anaphylaxis?
What happens to B/P? To airway?
Type I immediate
B/P plummets. Airway constriction.
What are hives called?
What is hayfever called?
rhin = nose, like how rhino has a big "nose"
List local type I immediate hypersens rxns.
aka atopic rxns
Which Ig's are involved in type II Ab-mediated hypersens?
examples of type II ab-mediated hypersens
mismatched blood transfusions
hemolytic disease of newborns - erythroblastis fetalis (Rh factor)
some drug rxns
examples of type III immune complex-mediated hypersens
vasculitis as in SLE (systemic lupus erythrometosis)