Bio: Chapter 4

  1. condition of Earth's atmosphere at a particular time and place
  2. average, year-after-year condition of temperature and precipitation in a particular region
  3. natural situation in which heat is retained in Earth's atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor and other gases
    greenhouse effect
  4. cold climate zone where the sun's rays strike Earth at a very low angle
    polar zone
  5. moderate climate zone between polar zones and the tropics
    temperate zone
  6. warm climate zone that receives direct or nearly direct sunlight year round
    tropical zone
  7. biological influence on organisms within an ecosystem
    biotic factors
  8. physical, or nonliving, factor that shapes an ecosystem
    abiotic factors
  9. the area where an organism lives, including the biotic and abiotic factors that affect it
  10. full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism uses those conditions
  11. any necessity of life, such as water, nutrients, light, food, or space
  12. ecological rule that states that no two species can occupy the same exact niche in the same habitat at the same time
    competitive exclusion principle
  13. interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on another organism
  14. relationship in which two species live closely together
  15. symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit from the relationship
  16. symbiotic relationship in which one member of the association benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed
  17. symbiotic relationship in which one organism lives in or on another organism (the host) and consequently harms it
  18. gradual change in living communities that follows a distrubance
    ecological succession
  19. succession that occurs on surfaces where no soil exists
    primary succession
  20. first species to populate an area during primary succession
    pioneer species
  21. succession following a disturbance that destroys a community without destroying the soil
    secondary succession
  22. group of ecosystems that have the same climate and dominant communities
  23. organism's capacity to grow or thrive when subjected to an unfavorable environmental factor
  24. climate within a small area that differs significantly from the climate of the surrounding area
  25. dense covering formed by the leafy tops of tall rain forest trees
  26. layer in a rain forest formed by shorter trees and vines
  27. term used to refer to a tree that sheds its leaves during a particular season each year
  28. term used to refer to trees that produce seed bearing cones and have thin leaves shaped like needles
  29. material formed from decaying leaves and other organic matter
  30. biome in which the winters are cold but summers are mild enough to allow the ground to thaw
  31. layer of permanently frozen subsoil in the tundra
  32. tiny, free-floating organisms that occurs in aquatic environments
  33. population of algae and other small, photosynthetic organisms found near the surface of the ocean and forming part of plankton
  34. tiny animals that form part of the plankton
  35. ecosystem in which water either covers the soil or is present at or near the surface of the soil for at least part of the year
  36. wetlands formed where rivers meet the ocean
  37. particles of organic material that provide food for organisms at the base of an estuary's food web
  38. temperate-zone estuary dominated by salt-tolerant grasses above the low-tide line and by sea grasses under water
    salt marsh
  39. coastal wetland dominated by mangroves, salt-tolerant woody plants
    mangrove swamp
  40. well-lit upper layer of the oceans
    photic zone
  41. permanently dark layer of the oceans below the photic zone
    aphotic zone
  42. prominent horizontal banding of organisms that live in a particular habitat
  43. marine zone that extends from the low tide mark to the end of the continental shelf
    coastal ocean
  44. coastal ocean community named for its dominant organism; kelp
    kelp forest
  45. diverse and productive environment named for the coral animals that make up its primary structure
    coral reef
  46. organisms that live attached to or near the ocean floor
Card Set
Bio: Chapter 4
Chapter 4 Vocab